Design of BigQuery ML
1.Design of BigQuery ML Umar Syed Google
2.About me • Researcher in machine learning at Google. • Involved in design and implementation of BigQuery ML since its inception. • Not a database expert!
3.Agenda What are BigQuery and BigQuery ML? Design Implementation Discussion Future work
4.BigQuery ● Google’s cloud-based SQL database-as-a-service. Enterprise data warehouse Petabyte-scale storage for analytics and queries Convenience of Encrypted, durable and standard SQL highly available Fully managed and Real-time analytics on serverless streaming data
5.BigQuery ● BigQuery users typically perform simple analysis like: > SELECT AVG (income) FROM census_data GROUP BY state;
6.BigQuery ML ● With BigQuery ML, they can perform sophisticated analysis like: > CREATE MODEL income_model OPTIONS (model_type=‘linear_reg’, labels=[‘income’]) AS SELECT state, job, income FROM census_data; > SELECT predicted_income FROM PREDICT (MODEL ‘income_model’, SELECT state, job FROM customer_data); ● Enables in-database machine learning for BigQuery users.
7.BigQuery ML ● Democratizes ML for business customers. ○ Experts in TensorFlow, scikit-learn, etc are rare. ○ Experts in SQL are far more common. ● Avoids slow, cumbersome moving of data to/from of database. ○ Learn ML models directly in BigQuery UI.
8.Customer use cases Customer churn Audience conversion Weather-based harsh driving prediction prediction for media planning prediction for smart cities Customer subscription Traffic prediction Automated IP address prediction for smart cities threat prediction Try it yourself at https://cloud.google.com/bigquery/ Send feedback to firstname.lastname@example.org
9.Agenda What are BigQuery and BigQuery ML? Design Implementation Discussion Future work
10.Design desiderta 1. Adaptable to BigQuery infrastructure. While leveraging its strengths. 2. Scalable. No limit on dataset or model size. ○ Should easily handle billions of examples, millions of features. 3. General purpose. Able to learn many kinds of ML models.
11.Design landscape Published in-database ML systems can be divided into 3 categories: Integrated system UDA-based system Pure SQL system
12.Integrated system ● Query processing engine and ML algorithms are implemented on top of common infrastructure. ● Example: Shark, a.k.a., Spark SQL.1 1 Xin, Rosen, Zaharia, Franklin, Shenker, Stoica (2012). Shark: SQL and rich analytics at scale.
13.Disadvantages of integrated system ● Re-implementing BigQuery was totally infeasible in the short-term.
14.UDA-based system ● User-defined aggregate functions extend the query processing engine to support ML algorithms. ● Example: Bismarck1, part of the MADlib open source library. 1 X. Feng, A. Kumar, B. Recht, and C. Re (2012). Towards a uniﬁed architecture for in-rdbms analytics.
15.Disadvantages of UDA-based system ● UDAs assume ML model can fit in memory. ○ ML model = State of the UDA. ● UDAs assume invariance to how data is distributed on disk. ○ Can lead to poor performance (we’ll see some experiments later).
16.Pure SQL system ● ML algorithms are implemented in SQL; query processing engine itself is unchanged. ● Examples: Clustering1, Naive Bayes classification.2 1 Ordonez (2006). Integrating k-means clustering with a relational DBMS using SQL. 2 Pitchaimalai and Ordonez (2009). Bayesian classiﬁers programmed in SQL.
17.“Disadvantages” of pure SQL system ● Conventional wisdom held that pure SQL is inadequate for implementing sophisticated ML algorithms. ● From the MADlib1 developers: “The portable core of ‘vanilla’ SQL is often not quite enough to express the kinds of algorithms needed for advanced analytics.” ● And yet BigQuery ML is a pure SQL system. 1 Hellerstein, Schoppmann, Wang, Fratkin, Gorajek, Ng, Welton, Feng, Li, Kumar (2012). The MADlib analytics library or MAD skills, the SQL.
18.Agenda What are BigQuery and BigQuery ML? Design Implementation Discussion Future work
19.Background: Generalized linear models ● A generalized linear model has the form: where: ○ x is an example’s feature vector. ○ w is the model’s weight vector (or parameter vector). ○ p() is the model’s prediction function.
20.Training a generalized linear model ● Collect labeled training examples (x1, y1), ..., (xn, yn). ● Minimize the objective: where loss function ℓ() measures discrepancy between model’s prediction for example xi and true label yi.
21.Types of generalized linear models ● Many ML models can be expressed as generalized linear models:
22.Training a generalized linear model ● Objective f(w) is minimized via gradient descent:
23.Training a generalized linear model in BigQuery ML ● Gradient descent implemented as sequence of pure SQL queries. ● Both data and models are represented as tables: data model state job label feature weight NY nurse 65 state:CA +5.7 CA chef 55 job:nurse -3.5 ... ... ... ... ...
24.Model training in BigQuery ML ● Each algorithm iteration issues SQL queries that join model to data, update model, then write model back to disk. model score table # score examples table # compute gradient # with model # and update model SELECT ... FROM SELECT ... FROM new model model JOIN data score JOIN data table data GROUP BY example; data GROUP BY feature; table table
25.Model training in BigQuery ML ● Query to update model weights:
26.Model training in BigQuery ML ● Query to compute inner products per example:
27.Agenda What are BigQuery and BigQuery ML? Design Implementation Discussion Future work
28.Why a batch method? ● Modern ML algorithms tend to be “incremental”. ○ Many iterations, each processing a few examples. ● But BigQuery ML algorithm is “batch”. ○ Few iterations, each processing every example.
29.Why a batch method? ● Incremental ML algorithms require efficient random sampling and access. ○ No support for this in BigQuery. ● Batch algorithm + BigQuery’s parallelism still yields good performance. ○ Can train model with 2B examples, 10M features in ~ 1 hour.