开源:从社区到商业化

开源软件运动创造了许多我们当今最为重要和最为广泛使用的技术,包括操作系统,网页浏览器,数据库等。如果我们的世界缺少了开源软件,或多或少会不那么精彩。尽管开源已经带来了惊人的技术创新,但是我们一直没有发现其巨大的商业价值,直到最近SaaS(软件即服务)的兴起,让开源从技术创新走向了商业模式创新。由于开源软件是任何人都可以免费使用,修改和发行的,因此开源技术企业与其他类型的软件公司相比,需要不同的商业模式和不同的市场投放。

彼得·莱文(Peter Levine)作为开发人员,企业家和投资者与开源软件打交道已有30多年了。他最近发表了一个名为“开源:从社区到商业化”的演讲,该演讲借鉴了他自己的经验以及对数十位开源专家的采访。本文是该演示文稿的PPT和视频,其中Peter介绍了开源软件的历史和兴起,并提供了一个实用的框架,将开源软件项目转变为成功的商业模式。

展开查看详情

1.Open Source: From Community to Commercialization Peter Levine, General Partner, Andreessen Horowitz • October 2019

2.Contributors Ali Ghodsi, CEO, Databricks Heather Meeker, OSS Licensing Lawyer Jiten Vaidya, CEO, PlanetScale Jono Bacon, Community Manager Kevin Wang, CEO, FOSSA Marco Palladino, CTO, Kong Maxime Beauchemin, Project Leader, Superset Paul St John, SVP, WW Sales, GitHub Stuart West, SVP Ops, Automattics Sugu Sougoumarane, CTO, PlanetScale Zeeshan Yoonas, CRO, Netlify

3.From Fringe to Epicenter Investor & Board Developer Executive Member Open Software Foundation ©2019 Andreessen Horowitz. All rights reserved worldwide.

4. The Open Source Renaissance Venture Deal Volume and Total Sizes 10,000M 40 9,000M 35 8,000M 30 7,000M Venture Deal Size # of venture Deals 25 6,000M 5,000M 20 4,000M 15 3,000M 10 2,000M 5 1,000M 0M 0 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Total of Venture Deal Size Venture Deals Data source: PitchBook This slide is for informational purposes only and should not be taken as investment advice. ©2019 Andreessen Horowitz. All rights reserved worldwide.

5.1999 3.6 2004 .2 2005 .05 2006 .4 2007 .3 .5 2008 1 The Market is Growing IPO and M&A Activities 2010 .1 2011 .1 .2 2012 .005 .01 .1 3 2014 .005 .01 .1 3 2015 .02 .03 .03 .6 2016 .04 .5 2017 .5 1.2 2 .1 .2 5.9 .4 1 .7 6.5 2018 .1 .1 .6 2.5 5.2 34 2019 0B 1B 2B 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8B 9B 10B 11B 12B 13B 34B Data source: PitchBook This slide is for informational purposes only and should not be taken as investment advice. ©2019 Andreessen Horowitz. All rights reserved worldwide.

6.Open Source Through the Ages OPEN SOURCE 0.0 OPEN SOURCE 1.0 OPEN SOURCE 2.0 FREE SOFTWARE SUPPORT & SERVICES SAAS GNU & BSD Open Source Initiative GitHub 1970s–1990s 1990s–2000s 2000s–Today ©2019 Andreessen Horowitz. All rights reserved worldwide.

7.The Virtuous Cycle of Open Source BUSINESS Speed Innovation INNOVATION Drive Adoption Pay for Support Improve Reliability Open Core TECHNOLOGY SaaS INNOVATION ©2019 Andreessen Horowitz. All rights reserved worldwide.

8.Three Pillars of Open Source Project-Community Fit Product-Market Fit Value-Market Fit Persona: Developers Persona: Users Persona: Buyers Measure: GitHub Stars Measure: Downloads Measure: Revenue ©2019 Andreessen Horowitz. All rights reserved worldwide.

9. # OF CONTRIBUTORS 1000 500 1500 2000 De c' 09 Ju n' 10 De c' 10 Ju n' 1 1 De c' 11 Ju n' 1 2 De c' 12 Ju n' 1 3 Goal: Critical Community Mass De c' 13 Ju Project-Community Fit n' 1 4 De c' 14 Ju n' 1 5 De c' 15 Ju n' 1 6 De c' 16 Ju n' 1 7 De c' 17 Ju n' 1 8 De c' 18 Ju n' 1 9 De c' 19 ©2019 Andreessen Horowitz. All rights reserved worldwide.

10.Product-Market Fit Goal: Organic Adoption 1800k USERS 1350k Downloads Project to Solve Problem Apollo-client Downloads Downloads 900k 450k PROJECT LEADER COLLABORATOR Owns OSS Roadmap Work on Codebase 0k Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun July Aug Sep Oct 2017 2018 Month Data source: https://twitter.com/apollographql/status/1060223579667685376 ©2019 Andreessen Horowitz. All rights reserved worldwide.

11.Value-Market Fit Goal: Revenue from Value to the Enterprise Performance Auditing Services RAS (reliability, Tooling, add-ons availability, security) ©2019 Andreessen Horowitz. All rights reserved worldwide.

12.Value-Market Fit Business Models SUPPORT OPEN CORE SAAS What it Commercializes What it Commercializes What it Commercializes Support & Proprietary & enhanced Hosting, tooling & Services functionality operations Examples Examples Examples ©2019 Andreessen Horowitz. All rights reserved worldwide.

13.Cloud & Licensing ©2019 Andreessen Horowitz. All rights reserved worldwide.

14.Building Your Organization

15. AWARENESS & INTEREST Developer Community Management CONSIDERATION Product Management Open Source EVALUATION & INTENT is Top-of-Funnel Lead Generation & Business Development PURCHASE & EXPANSION Self-Serve and Sales-Serve ©2019 Andreessen Horowitz. All rights reserved worldwide.

16. Developer Community Management Stage 1 Awareness & Interest Developer Branding Measure Evangelism To keep your OSS User registrations Network of name or brand your and/or downloads. passionate technical commercial offering experts drive word of separately? mouth. ©2019 Andreessen Horowitz. All rights reserved worldwide.

17. Product Management Stage 2 Two Roadmaps Communication Analytics & Telemetry for Managing the open Focus on transparent Growth Consideration and closed roadmaps communication and is key function for R&D investment back Analytics are most Founder CEOs. into open source. complex. Experiment to understand what predicts sales opportunities. ©2019 Andreessen Horowitz. All rights reserved worldwide.

18. Lead-Gen & Sales Development Stage 3 Outbound SDRs Filtering Leads Marketing Learn more about What organization Focus on specific users to understand does a developer market segments your commercial use represent? and well-known case beyond product patterns from your analytics. Are they doing inbound funnel. something with the Evaluation & OSS connected to Intent the larger enterprise or just a hobby project? ©2019 Andreessen Horowitz. All rights reserved worldwide.

19. Self-Serve and Sales-Serve Stage 4 Self-Serve Sales-Serve Common Failure Modes Bottom up user Top down sales adoption in single motion to expand 1) User doesn’t lead department or part of account across the to a buyer. the enterprise. enterprise. 2) Growth falls behind enterprise sales. 3) Commercial Purchase & offering kills developer cred. Expansion ©2019 Andreessen Horowitz. All rights reserved worldwide.

20.What Success Looks Like If all 4 stages of the funnel work harmoniously, you may see a graph like this. Self-Serve (Individual) Inside Sales (Departmental) Field Sales (Enterprise) AND STAY FOCUSED ON: $$/Customer How is your open source and commercial offering providing value to users? Time ©2019 Andreessen Horowitz. All rights reserved worldwide.

21.Open Source 3.0

22.Airbnb Open Sourced 30+ Projects ©2019 Andreessen Horowitz. All rights reserved worldwide.

23.Google Has Open Sourced 2000+ Projects ©2019 Andreessen Horowitz. All rights reserved worldwide.

24.As Software Eats the World, Open Source Eats Software BUS IN E SS N INN AI Ad-supported T O I OVATION VA Open Source Data Data-driven Revenue N I N O Blockchain Crypto Tokens G Y O O L H N TEC ©2019 Andreessen Horowitz. All rights reserved worldwide.

25.Open Source is a Key Part of Every Company. ©2019 Andreessen Horowitz. All rights reserved worldwide.

26.Panel Discussion PANELISTS Ali Ghodsi, Databricks Armon Dadgar, HashiCorp Peter Levine, Andreessen Horowitz MODERATOR Das Rush, Andreessen Horowitz