1.Chapter 7 Assembly Language
2.Our Bag of Tricks so far Control structures Numeric operations? Bit-wise operations? 7- 2
3.Working with Text 7- 3 Opcode Operand Meaning .ORIG address starting address of program .END end of program .BLKW n allocate n words of storage .FILL n allocate one word, initialize with value n .STRINGZ n-character string allocate n+1 locations, initialize w/characters and null terminator Code Equivalent Description HALT TRAP x25 Halt execution and print message to console. IN TRAP x23 Print prompt on console, read (and echo) one character from keybd . Character stored in R0[7:0]. OUT TRAP x21 Write one character (in R0[7:0]) to console. GETC TRAP x20 Read one character from keyboard. Character stored in R0[7:0]. PUTS TRAP x22 Write null-terminated string to console. Address of string is in R0. Characters represented using the ASCII character code
4.7- 4 Sample Program Count the occurrences of a character in a file.
5.7- 5 Char Count in Assembly Language (1 of 3) ; ; Program to count occurrences of a character in a file. ; Character to be input from the keyboard. ; Result to be displayed on the monitor. ; Program only works if no more than 9 occurrences are found. ; ; ; Initialization ; .ORIG x3000 AND R2, R2, #0 ; R2 is counter, initially 0 LD R3, PTR ; R3 is pointer to characters GETC ; R0 gets character input LDR R1, R3, #0 ; R1 gets first character ; ; Test character for end of file ; TEST ADD R4, R1, #-4 ; Test for EOT (ASCII x04) BRz OUTPUT ; If done, prepare the output
6.7- 6 Char Count in Assembly Language (2 of 3) ; ; Test character for match. If a match, increment count. ; NOT R1, R1 ADD R1, R1, R0 ; If match, R1 = xFFFF NOT R1, R1 ; If match, R1 = x0000 BRnp GETCHAR ; If no match, do not increment ADD R2, R2, #1 ; ; Get next character from file. ; GETCHAR ADD R3, R3, #1 ; Point to next character. LDR R1, R3, #0 ; R1 gets next char to test BRnzp TEST ; ; Output the count. ; OUTPUT LD R0, ASCII ; Load the ASCII template ADD R0, R0, R2 ; Covert binary count to ASCII OUT ; ASCII code in R0 is displayed. HALT ; Halt machine
7.7- 7 Char Count in Assembly Language (3 of 3) ; ; Storage for pointer and ASCII template ; ASCII .FILL x0030 PTR .FILL x4000 .END