# 基本概率：结果与事件

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1.Basic Probability: Outcomes and Events 4/6/12 1

2.Counting in Probability What is the probability of getting exactly two jacks in a poker hand? lec 13W. 2 lec 13W. 2

3.Outcomes : 5-card hands Event : hands w/2Jacks Pr {2 Jacks} :: = ≈ 0.04 Counting in Probability lec 13W. 3

4.A set of basic experimental outcomes aka the Sample Space A subset of outcomes is an event The probability of an event ( v . 1.0) : Probability: Basic Ideas lec 13W. 4

5.Basics of the 2-Jacks problem An outcome is a poker hand The sample space is the set of all poker hands We are assuming that all hands are equally likely (no stacked deck, no cheating dealer) The event of interest is the set of poker hands with two jacks 4/6/12 5

6.Flipping 10 coins & getting exactly 5 heads Outcomes := {H,T} 10 Event := {x 1 …x 10 : each x i is H or T and exactly 5 are H} |Outcomes| = 2 10 = 1024 |Event| = Pr(exactly 5 heads) = |Event|/|Outcomes|, which is a little less than one-fourth. 4/6/12 6

7.Assumptions! Fair coin: H and T equally likely No flip affects any other So all 1024 sequences of flips are equally likely In practice human beings don’t believe 2, and can be skeptical about 1 TTTTTTTTTx : What will x be? 4/6/12 7

8.Independent Events Events A and B are independent iff Pr(A∩B ) = Pr(A ) ∙ Pr(B ). For example, let A = third flip is H = {H,T} 2 H{H,T} 7 B = fourth flip is T = {H,T} 3 T{H,T} 6 Then |A|=512, |B|=512, Pr(A )=.5, Pr(B )=.5 A∩B = {H,T} 2 HT{H,T} 6 , |A∩B| = 256 Pr(A∩B ) = 256/1024 = .25 = Pr(A ) ∙ Pr(B ) So A and B are independent events 4/6/12 8

9.Non-Independent Events Consider sequences of 4 flips A = at least 1 H B = at least one run of 3 T Pr(A ) = 15/16 since all but one sequence of 4 flips includes an H Pr(B ) = 3/16 since B = {TTTT, HTTT, TTTH} A∩B = {HTTT, TTTH} So Pr(A∩B ) = 2/16 ≠ Pr(A ) ∙ Pr(B ) = 45/256 0.1875 ≠ 0.17578125 4/6/12 9

10.Some Basic Probability Facts 0 ≤ Pr(A ) ≤ 1 for any event A Since 0 ≤ |A|/|S| ≤ 1 whenever A⊆S. Pr( ∅ ) = 0. Pr(S ) = 1 if S is the sample space. Pr(A∪B ) = Pr(A)+Pr(B ) if A∩B = ∅. Pr(A ) = Pr (S -A) = 1-Pr(A) P(A∪B) = P(A)+P(B)-P(A∩B) for any events A, B (Inclusion/Exclusion principle). 4/6/12 10 _

11.Calculating Probabilities Which is more likely when you draw a card from a deck? A: that you will draw a card that is either a red card or a face card B: that you will draw a card that is neither a face card nor a club? The sample space is the same in either case, the 52 cards. So we can just compare the numerators 4/6/12 11

12.Calculating Probabilities A: a red card or a face card B: not a face card and not a club = S – (face or club cards) |A| = | red|+|face |-|red face| = 26+12-6=32 |B| = |S|-|face or club| = |S|-|face|-| club|+|face club| = 52-12-13+3 = 30 So more likely to draw a red or face card 4/6/12 12

13.Finis 4/6/12 13