Improving the Life of Data Scientists - Automating ML Lifecycle through MLFlow

The data science lifecycle consists of multiple iterative steps: data collection, data cleaning/exploration, feature engineering, model training, model deployment and scoring among others. The process is often tedious and error-prone and requires considerable human effort. Apart from these challenges, when it comes to leveraging ML in enterprise applications, especially in regulated environments, the level of scrutiny for data handling, model fairness, user privacy, and debuggability is very high. In this talk, we present the basic features of Flock, an end-to-end platform that facilitates adoption of ML in enterprise applications. We refer to this new class of applications as Enterprise Grade Machine Learning (EGML). Flock leverages MLflow to simplify and automate some of the steps involved in supporting EGML applications, allowing data scientists to spend most of their time on improving their ML models. Flock makes use of MLflow for model and experiment tracking but extends and complements it by providing automatic logging, deeper integration with relational databases that often store confidential data, model optimizations and support for the ONNX model format and the ONNX Runtime for inference. We will also present our ongoing work on automatically tracking lineage between data and ML models which is crucial in regulated environments. We will showcase Flock’s features through a demo using Microsoft’s Azure Data Studio and MLflow.

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1.Flock: E2E platform to democratize Data Science

2.Agenda Chapter 1: • GSL’s vantage point • Why are we building (yet) another Data Science platform? • Flock platform • A technology showcase demo Chapter 2: • EGML applications in Microsoft: MLflow + ONNX + SQL Server • Capturing provenance • Future Work

3.GSL’s vantage point Applied research lab part of Office of the CTO, Azure Data 1.1M LoC in products 0.5MLoC in OSS 600k Servers running LoCin in OSS our code Azure/Hydra 130+ Publications in top tier conferences/journals 40Patents 6 GAed or Public Preview features just this year

4.Systems considered thus far Cloud Providers Private Services OSS

5.Systems comparison Training Experiment Tracking Managed Notebooks Pipelines / Projects Multi-Framework Proprietary Algos Distributed Training Auto ML Serving Batch prediction On-prem deployment Model Monitoring Model Validation Data Management Data Provenance Data testing Feature Store Featurization DSL Labelling Good Support OK Support No Support Unknown

6.Insights – Data Science is all about data J – There’s an emerging class of applications: • Enterprise Grade Machine Learning (EGML – CIDR’20) – Dichotomy of “smarts” with rudimentary process » Challenge on account of dual nature of models – software & data – Couple of key pillars to enable EGML are: • Tools for automating DS lifecycle – Only O(100) ipython notebooks in GitHub import mlflow over 1M+ analyzed – O(1000) for sklearn pipelines • Data Governance • (Unified data access)

7.Flock: Data-driven development Data-driven development Model transform telemetry model LightGBM NN ONNX tracking training policies ONNX’ Optimization Job telemetry deployment offline online Job-id Close/Update Incidents ONNX’ policies application Dhalion Solution Deployment

8. import mlflow import mlflow.onnx DEMO Python code import multiprocessing import torch import onnx from onnx import optimizer from functools import partial from flock import get_tree_parameters, LightGBMBinaryClassifier_Batched import mlflow.sklearn import mlflow import pandas as pd import lightgbm as lgb from sklearn import metrics data_train = pd.read_csv('global_train_x_label_with_mapping.csv') data_test = pd.read_csv('global_test_x_label_with_mapping.csv') train_x = data_train.iloc[:, :-1].values train_y = data_train.iloc[:, (-1)].values test_x = data_test.iloc[:, :-1].values test_y = data_test.iloc[:, (-1)].values n_leaves = 8 n_trees = 100 clf = lgb.LGBMClassifier(num_leaves=n_leaves, n_estimators=n_trees) mlflow.log_param('clf_init_n_estimators', n_trees) mlflow.log_param('clf_init_num_leaves', n_leaves) clf.fit(train_x, train_y) import pandas as pd mlflow.sklearn.log_model(clf, 'clf_model') import lightgbm as lgb score = metrics.precision_score(test_y, clf.predict(test_x), average='macro') from sklearn import metrics mlflow.log_param('precision_score_average', ' macro') mlflow.log_param('score', score) data_train = pd.read_csv("global_train_x_label_with_mapping.csv") print('Precision Score on Test Data: ' + str(score)) Instrumented data_test = pd.read_csv("global_test_x_label_with_mapping.csv") n_features = 100 User code train_x = data_train.iloc[:,:-1].values activation = 'sigmoid' train_y = data_train.iloc[:,-1].values torch.set_num_threads(1) test_x = data_test.iloc[:,:-1].values device = torch.device('cpu') test_y = data_test.iloc[:,-1].values model_name = 'griffon' n_leaves = 8 code n_trees = 100 model = clf.booster_.dump_model() n_features = clf.n_features_ clf = lgb.LGBMClassifier(num_leaves=n_leaves, n_estimators=n_trees) tree_infos = model['tree_info'] clf.fit(train_x,train_y) pool = multiprocessing.Pool(8) score = metrics.precision_score(test_y, clf.predict(test_x), average='macro’) parameters = pool.map(partial(get_tree_parameters, n_features=n_features), print("Precision Score on Test Data: " + str(score)) tree_infos) lgb_nn = LightGBMBinaryClassifier_Batched(parameters, n_features, activation ).to(device) torch.onnx.export(lgb_nn, torch.randn(1, n_features).to(device), model_name + '_nn.onnx', export_params=True, operator_export_type=torch.onnx. OperatorExportTypes.ONNX_ATEN_FALLBACK) passes = ['eliminate_deadend', 'eliminate_identity', 'eliminate_nop_monotone_argmax', 'eliminate_nop_transpose', 'eliminate_unused_initializer', 'extract_constant_to_initializer', 'fuse_consecutive_concats', 'fuse_consecutive_reduce_unsqueeze', 'fuse_consecutive_squeezes', 'fuse_consecutive_transposes', 'fuse_matmul_add_bias_into_gemm', 'fuse_transpose_into_gemm', 'lift_lexical_references'] model = onnx.load(model_name + '_nn.onnx') opt_model = optimizer.optimize(model, passes) mlflow.onnx.log_model(opt_model, 'opt_model') pyfunc_loaded = mlflow.pyfunc.load_pyfunc('opt_model', run_id=mlflow. active_run().info.run_uuid) scoring = pyfunc_loaded.predict(pd.DataFrame(test_x[:1].astype('float32')) ).values print('Scoring through mlflow pyfunc: ', scoring) mlflow.log_param('pyfunc_scoring', scoring[0][0]) Flock

9. Griffon: why is my job slow today? ACM SoCC 2019 Current OnCall Workflow A job goes out of SLA and A support engineer (SE) spends hours After 5-6 hours of investigation, the Support is alerted of manual labor looking through reason for job slow down is found. hundreds of metrics Revised OnCall Workflow with Griffon The reason is found in the top five generated by Griffon. All the metrics Griffon A job goes out of SLA and has looked at can be The Job ID is fed through Griffon and ruled out and the SE can the SE is alerted the top reasons for job slowdown are direct their efforts to a generated automatically smaller set of metrics.

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11.EGML applications in Microsoft Mlflow 3 --Tracks the runs (parameters, code versions, metrics, output files) Run -- Visualizes the output 1 Serving Model Training TensorFlow 2 Conversion to ML Flow Model ONNX (ONNX flavor) Spark SQL Server Model Generation … H2O PyTorch Keras … 4 Scikit-learn Model.v1 Model.vn SQL Server as artifact/backend store

12.ONNX: Interoperability across ML frameworks Open format to represent ML models Backed by Microsoft, Amazon, Facebook, and several hardware vendors

13.ONNX exchange format • Open format • Enables interoperability across frameworks • Many supported frameworks to import/export – Caffe2, PyTorch, CNTK, MXNet, TensorFlow, CoreML

14.ONNX Runtime • Cross-platform, high-performance scoring engine for ONNX models • Open-sourced at the end of 2018 • ONNX Runtime is used in millions of Windows devices and powers core models across Office, Bing, and Azure Perform inference Train a model using a efficiently across Convert the model to popular framework multiple platforms such as TensorFlow ONNX format and hardware using ONNX runtime

15.ONNX Runtime and optimizations Key design points: Graph IR Support for multiple backends (e.g., CPU, GPU, FPGA) Graph optimizations Rule-based optimizer inspired by DB optimizers Improved inference time and memory consumption Examples: 117msec à 34msec; 250MB à 200MB

16.ONNX Runtime in production ~40 ONNX >10 orgs models are migrating models Average Speedup in production to ONNX Runtime 2.7x

17.ONNX Runtime in production 14.6x reduction in latency Office – Grammar Checking Model

18.MLflow + ONNX • MLflow (1.0.0) has now built-in support for ONNX models • ONNX model flavor for saving, loading and evaluating ONNX models Train a sklearn model

19. Serving the ONNX model Deploy the server mlflow models serve -m /artifacts/model -p 1234 Perform Inference curl -X POST -H "Content-Type:application/json; format=pandas-split" --data '{"columns":["alcohol", "chlorides", "citric acid", "density", "fixed acidity", "free sulfur dioxide", "pH", "residual sugar", "sulphates", "total sulfur dioxide", "volatile acidity"],"data":[[12.8, 0.029, 0.48, 0.98, 6.2, 29, 3.33, 1.2, 0.39, 75, 0.66]]}' http://127.0.0.1:1234/invocations [6.379428821398614] ONNX Runtime is automatically invoked

20.MLflow + SQL Server • MLflow can use SQL Server as an artifact store (and other RDBMSs as well) (PR) • The models are stored in binary format in the database along with other metadata such as model name, size, run_id, etc. client = MlflowClient() exp_name = “test" client.create_experiment(exp_name, artifact_location="mssql+pyodbc://sa:password@ipAddress:port/dbName?driver=ODBC+Driver+17+for+SQL+Server") mlflow.set_experiment(exp_name) mlflow.onnx.log_model(onnx, “model")

21.Provenance in EGML applications • Need for end-to-end provenance tracking • Multiple systems involved in each pipeline Data pre-processing Model Training Python • Compliance SQL Script • Keeping ML models up-to-date

22. Tracking provenance in Python scripts Semantic annotation Python Dependencies Python through a knowledge AST between variables Script base of common ML generation and functions libraries • Automatically identify models, metrics, hyperparameters in python scripts • Answer questions such as: “Which columns in a dataset were used for model training?” Dataset #Scripts %ML models %Training covered Datasets Covered Kaggle 49 95% 61% Microsoft 37 100% 100%

23.Future work • MLflow: – Integration with metadata management systems such as Apache Atlas • Flock: – Data Governance – Generalize and extend coverage of auto-tracking and ML à NN conversion. – Provenance of end-to-end pipelines • Combine with other systems (e.g., SQL, Spark)