Assessing Graph Solutions for Apache Spark

Users have several options for running graph algorithms with Apache Spark. To support a graph data architecture on top of its linear-oriented DataFrames, the Spark platform offers GraphFrames. However, due to the fact that GraphFrames are immutable and not a native graph, there are cases where it might not offer the features or performance needed for certain use cases. Another option is to connect Spark to a real-time, scalable and distributed native graph database such as TigerGraph.

In this session, we compare three options — GraphX, Cypher for Apache Spark, and TigerGraph — for different types of workload requirements and data sizes, to help users select the right solution for their needs. We also look at the data transfer and loading time for TigerGraph.

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1.WIFI SSID:Spark+AISummit | Password: UnifiedDataAnalytics

2.Assessing Graph Solutions for Apache Spark Songting Chen , Victor Lee (TigerGraph) #UnifiedDataAnalytics #SparkAISummit

3.Graph is HOW WE THINK #UnifiedDataAnalytics #SparkAISummit 3

4.We Use Graph Every Day #UnifiedDataAnalytics #SparkAISummit 4

5. The Evolution of Graph Analysis • Early days – PageRank etc, focus on graph algorithms – Pregel programming API • Nowadays – Query language, more declarative without losing expressive power – AI + graph data: graph features, training, predictions – More real time (updates, queries) – Scale, scale, scale – Gartner: Graph DB market grows 100% YOY through 2022 #UnifiedDataAnalytics #SparkAISummit 5

6.Typical Workload / Use Cases • Batch / offline processing – Web Search/PageRank, etc • Real time graph queries / updates – Graph feature extraction for AI training and prediction, e.g., spam phone call detection – Data center monitoring (server, router, apps, rack) – Entire big data industry moves towards real time • Scalability: large data volume, high QPS #UnifiedDataAnalytics #SparkAISummit 6

7.This Talk • Spark: General scalable big data / ML platform – GraphX: Spark-based Graph Platform • TigerGraph: Scalable Native Graph Platform v How they differ, pros and cons for graph applications v How they work together to provide end-to-end solutions #UnifiedDataAnalytics #SparkAISummit 7

8.Comparing GraphX and TigerGraph

9.Areas of Focus • Graph Data Storage • Query Expressiveness • Supported Workload • Scalability and Performance #UnifiedDataAnalytics #SparkAISummit 9

10.Graph Data Storage • TigerGraph • ETL preload / optimized storage • GraphX – Data stored elsewhere and load them on the fly • Pros and cons – Load data once (initial cost, good for repeated analysis) – Load data many times (minimal initial cost, good for initial exploratory analysis) #UnifiedDataAnalytics #SparkAISummit 10

11.Query Expressiveness GraphX - API-based for creating graph algorithm PageRank(...) … while (iteration < numIter) { rankGraph.cache() val rankUpdates = rankGraph.aggregateMessages[Double]( ctx => ctx.sendToDst(ctx.srcAttr * ctx.attr), 1 _ + _, TripletFields.Src) msg: 1/4 = 0.25 prevRankGraph = rankGraph rankGraph = rankGraph.outerJoinVertices(rankUpdates) { (id, oldRank, msgSumOpt) => msg resetProb + (1.0 - resetProb) * msgSumOpt.getOrElse(0.0) }.cache() msg rankGraph.edges.foreachPartition(x => {}) +: {msg} prevRankGraph.vertices.unpersist() prevRankGraph.edges.unpersist() iteration += 1 } #UnifiedDataAnalytics #SparkAISummit 11

12.TigerGraph’s GSQL: Declarative Graph Algorithm Design SumAccum @received_score = 0; SumAccum @score = 1; @score @received_score people = {People.*}; WHILE True LIMIT maxIter DO src people = SELECT src FROM people:src-(:follow)→people:tgt tgt.@received_score ACCUM tgt.@received_score += src.@score/src.outdegree() += src.@score/src.outdegree() POST-ACCUM s.@score = (1-resetProb) + resetProb * t.@received_score, tgt s.@received_score = 0, src END; src #UnifiedDataAnalytics #SparkAISummit 12

13.TigerGraph’s GSQL – cont. SumAccum @received_score = 0; SumAccum @score = 1; MaxAccum @received_max_neighbor_score = 0; src MaxAccum @max_neighbor_score = 1; tgt.@received_score people = {People.*}; += src.@score/src.degree() WHILE True LIMIT maxIter DO tgt.@max_neighbor_score Start = SELECT src += src.@score FROM people:src-(follow:e)→people:tgt; ACCUM tgt.@ received_score += src.@score/(s.outdegree()), tgt tgt.@ received_max_neighbor_score += src.@score POST-ACCUM s.@score = (1-resetProb) + resetProb * t.@received_score, src s.@received_score = 0, s.@max_neighbor_score = s.@received_max_neighbor_score, s.@received_max_neighbor_score = 0; src END; Simultaneously compute many metrics in a declarative way for complex algorithms #UnifiedDataAnalytics #SparkAISummit 13

14.GraphFrame: Declarative Pattern Query val chain4 = g.find("(a)-[ab]->(b); (b)-[bc]->(c); (c)-[cd]->(d)") def sumFriends(cnt: Column, relationship: Column): Column = { when(relationship === "friend", cnt + 1).otherwise(cnt) } val condition = Seq("ab", "bc", "cd"). foldLeft(lit(0))((cnt, e) => sumFriends(cnt, col(e)("relationship"))) // (c) Apply filter to DataFrame. val chainWith2Friends2 = chain4.where(condition >= 2) #UnifiedDataAnalytics #SparkAISummit 14

15.TigerGraph’s GSQL: declarative pattern matching + algorithm @rank A simple recommendation algorithm @common_buys SumAccum @common_buys; OrAccum @already_bought; SumAccum @product_rank; @common_buys other_people = SELECT g FROM seed_people:s-(buy)→ product:t ← (buy)-people:g ACCUM g.@common_buys += 1, @common_buys t.@already_bought += true recommended_products = SELECT t FROM other_people:s -> (buy:e) -> product:t WHERE t.already_bought = false @rank ACCUM t.rank += log(1 + s.@common_buys) ORDER BY t.rank DESC LIMIT 20 Real time updates / queries could significantly improve the effectiveness of the recommendation algorithm. #UnifiedDataAnalytics #SparkAISummit 15

16.Query Expressiveness - Summary • GraphX (API for designing graph algorithm) + GraphFrame (declarative pattern queries) • GSQL (SQL-procedure query language, declarative on both graph algorithm and pattern matching) • Both provide powerful graph analytics capabilities #UnifiedDataAnalytics #SparkAISummit 16

17.Query Workload GraphX TigerGraph Big Analytics Query ✓ ✓ High QPS, Sub-second Query ✓ Workload Real Time Transactional Updates ✓ GraphX (OLAP) TigerGraph (HTAP) #UnifiedDataAnalytics #SparkAISummit 17

18.Scalability • Spark/GraphX is well-known for its scalability and MPP capabilities. • TigerGraph is also designed from ground up with MPP and scalability in mind. #UnifiedDataAnalytics #SparkAISummit 18

19.TigerGraph: Analytics Query Scalability Twitter dataset (41M vertices, 1.4B edges) AWS 16 r5.2xlarge servers (8 cores, 64GB memory) Latency (s) # servers #UnifiedDataAnalytics #SparkAISummit 19

20.TigerGraph: Point Query Scalability Point query: 3-step graph traversals from a seed vertex Application: real time ML prediction based on graph features QPS # servers #UnifiedDataAnalytics #SparkAISummit 20

21.Performance Comparison GraphX: EdgePartition2D; AWS 16 r5.x2large servers (8 cores, 64GB memory) Latency (s) #UnifiedDataAnalytics #SparkAISummit 21

22.Performance Comparison Cont. GraphX: EdgePartition2D; AWS 16 r5.x2large servers (8 cores, 64GB memory) Latency (s) #UnifiedDataAnalytics #SparkAISummit 22

23.Summary / Recommendations • GraphX: Quick-to-result exploratory analysis without having to preload the graph data • TigerGraph: High performance graph analytics, real time transactional updates, high QPS sub-second query workload #UnifiedDataAnalytics #SparkAISummit 23

24.How Spark and TigerGraph Work Together

25.Reference Architecture: Spark + TigerGraph for AI 25

26.Connect Spark-TigerGraph through JDBC • Support Read and Write bi-directional data flow to/from TigerGraph • Read: Convert graph query results to DataFrame • Write: Load DataFrame/Files to Vertex/Edges in TigerGraph • Open Source – https://github.com/tigergraph/ecosystem/tree/master/etl/tg_jdbc_driver 26

27.Benefits of Spark + TigerGraph • Take full advantage of the value from graph data in real time • Combine them with all other data for deep insights and AI • Scalable in every step • Already have actual use cases running in this architecture 27