MongoDB cool administration tips

在与MongoDB在不同项目上合作5年多之后,我收集了一些有趣的提示/脚本,可以帮助您完成项目和日常任务。以下是我将要提到的一些领域:
-操作监控
-慢速查询
-数据清除
-SSL设置
-分片簇维护

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1.MongoDB cool administration tips Gabriel Ciciliani - Percona Live Europe 2018

2.#1 db.currentOps() flat output

3.db.currentOps() flat output mongo> db. currentOp(<filters>).inprog.forEach( function(d){ var q = {}; print('ConnectionId: '+d.connectionId +' Operation: '+d.op +' Namespace: '+d.ns +' Client:'+d.client +' Seconds_running: '+d.secs_running +' NumYields: '+d.numYields +' Query:'+JSON.stringify (d.command)) } ) Filters: {"ns":/^customers\./,"op":"insert","secs_running":{$gt:60}}

4.db.currentOps() flat output ConnectionId:88 Operation:command Namespace:sbtest.$cmd Client:172.19.0.1:59782 Seconds_running:53 NumYields:0 Query:{"createIndexes":"sbtest3","indexes":[{"name":"k_1","ns":"sbtest.sbtest3","background":false,"key":{"k":1}}],"$db":"sbtest"} ConnectionId:86 Operation:command Namespace:sbtest.$cmd Client:172.19.0.1:59774 Seconds_running:53 NumYields:0 Query:{"createIndexes":"sbtest1","indexes":[{"name":"k_1","ns":"sbtest.sbtest1","background":false,"key":{"k":1}}],"$db":"sbtest"} ConnectionId:87 Operation:command Namespace:sbtest.$cmd Client:172.19.0.1:59778 Seconds_running:53 NumYields:0 Query:{"createIndexes":"sbtest2","indexes":[{"name":"k_1","ns":"sbtest.sbtest2","background":false,"key":{"k":1}}],"$db":"sbtest"}

5.#2 Massive operations

6.Massive document update / removal If the condition retrieves too many documents or there is no index for the condition key: ● Determine lowest and highest _id for the condition specified ● Split the above range in fixed size chunks, by storing the chunk’s boundaries in a list. ● Iterate through the chunks and execute the update operation for each one

7.Massive document removal If the condition key is indexed ● use limit(), specify a chunksize and a delay. Iterate until no documents matching the condition are found

8.Database drop ● db.dropDatabase() requires a global write lock, blocking other operations until it has completed. ● db.collection.drop() only requires a database level lock ● Drop all collections first, then drop the database

9.#3 Slow queries

10.Plan Cache Filters db.runCommand( { planCacheSetFilter: <collection>, query: <query>, sort: <sort>, projection: <projection>, indexes: [ <index1>, <index2>, ...] } ) * query + sort + projection = query shape

11.Unused Indexes ● db.orders.aggregate( [ { $indexStats: { } } ] ) ... "host" : "myhost:30008", "accesses" : { "ops" : NumberLong(4), "since" : ISODate("2018-07-25T10:12:59.106Z") } ... ● Needs to be executed for each collection => script!

12.mtools Written in python. For when the profiler is disabled. ● mlogfilter ○ --operation OP ○ --pattern P ○ --slow MS ○ --scan ○ --from FROM --to TO ● mplotqueries

13.mtools

14.#4 SSL troubleshooting

15.SSL troubleshooting ## Validate certificate - PK correspondence $ openssl rsa -in mongo.key -noout -modulus | openssl md5 (stdin)= 45921d92f81d32ce48f02bcd904bdfb3 $ openssl x509 -in mongo.crt -noout -modulus | openssl md5 (stdin)= 45921d92f81d32ce48f02bcd904bdfb3 ## Verifying alternate DNS names within the certificate $ openssl x509 -in mongo.crt -text | grep DNS ## Verifying certificate against the CA certificates $ openssl verify -CAfile /etc/ssl/mongo-rootAndChain.crt /etc/ssl/server.pem /etc/ssl/server.pem: OK

16.SSL troubleshooting ## Configuration ssl: mode:[ allowSSL | preferSSL | requireSSL | ] allowConnectionsWithoutCertificates: true

17.#5 Replicasets and Sharding

18.Sharded clusters maintenance ● Dealing with Jumbo chunks ○ Divide the chunk using sh.splitAt() ○ Manually clear the flag updating config.chunks ● Remember that explain()can be used to verify chunk migration operations ● Update mongoS cache after a manual chunks migration, clearing a jumbo chunk flag, removing a shard or issuing movePrimary ○ db.adminCommand({ flushRouterConfig: 1 } ) ● Query config.mongos to obtain a list of mongoS nodes that ever connected to the cluster. Useful when migrating config servers

19.Preventing cross-region traffic ● Hide a replicaset member to make it invisible to applications ● Use tags to prioritize traffic on one region over the other >>> from pymongo.read_preferences import Secondary >>> db = client.get_database( ... 'test', read_preference=Secondary([{'dc': 'ny'}, {'dc': 'sf'}]))

20.Example scripts Example script to process updates in chunks https://github.com/gabocic/mongodb/blob/master/chunksfinder.js Example to drop a database by dropping all collections first https://github.com/gabocic/mongodb/blob/master/dropDatabasesLowImpact.js Simple collection pruning example https://github.com/gabocic/mongodb/blob/master/simpleCollectionPruning.js Full collection pruning example including emergency halt and logging https://github.com/gabocic/mongodb/blob/master/pruneDropCollections.js Flat currentOps() https://github.com/gabocic/mongodb/blob/master/flatcurrentops.js Unused indexes https://github.com/gabocic/mongodb/blob/master/unusedidx.js

21. Thanks! Gabriel Ciciliani ciciliani@pythian.com www.linkedin.com/in/gabrielciciliani @gabocic