High Performance PostgreSQL, Tuning and Optimization Guide

PostgreSQL是领先的开源数据库之一。现成的默认PostgreSQL配置不会针对任何特定的工作负载进行优化。默认配置的设计方式是,PostgreSQL可以在任何资源最少的系统上运行。PostgreSQL没有在高持久性机器上提供最佳性能,因为它没有使用所有可用的资源。PostgreSQL提供了一个系统,您可以根据工作负载和机器规格调整数据库。除了PostgreSQL之外,我们还可以调整Linux设备,以便数据库加载能够以最佳方式工作。在这里,我们学习了如何调优PostgreSQL,并将看到调优的结果,我们还将接触到一些Linux内核参数调优。

展开查看详情

1.High Performance PostgreSQL, Tuning and Optimization Guide Ibrar Ahmed Senior Software Engineer @ Percona LLC PostgreSQL Consultant

2. PostgreSQL Why? ● One of the finest open source relational Support? database which has some object-oriented features.
 There are many companies providing Object-Relational database management professional support for PostgreSQL. system (RDBMS) ● PostgreSQL is free. ● PostgreSQL is Open Source. ● PostgreSQL Conform to the ANSI-SQL: 2008. ● PostgreSQL is ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation and Durability) Complaint. Licence? PostgreSQL: Released under the PostgreSQL Who? License. (Similar to BSD or MIT) ● Web technology ● Financial ● No-SQL Workload ● Small & Large Scale Business !2

3.PostgreSQL Architecture !3

4.Database Performance • Hardware • Operating System (Linux) • Database (PostgreSQL) Configuration • Workload • Queries • Application !4

5.Tune PostgreSQL !5

6.PostgreSQL Tuning - Configuration Parameter • shared_buffer • wal_buffers • effective_cache_size • work_mem • maintenance_work_mem • synchronous_commit • checkpoint_timeout • checkpoint_completion_target !6

7.PostgreSQL Tuning - shared_buffer • PostgreSQL uses its own buffer and also uses kernel buffered I/O. • PostgreSQL buffer is called shared_buffer. • Data is written to shared_buffer then kernel buffer then on the disk. postgresql=# SHOW shared_buffers; shared_buffers ---------------- 128MB (1 row) The proper size for the POSTGRESQL shared buffer cache is the largest useful size that does not adversely affect other activity. —Bruce Momjian !7

8.PostgreSQL Tuning - shared_buffer !8

9.PostgreSQL Tuning - wal_buffer • PostgreSQL writes its WAL (write ahead log) record into the buffers and then these buffers are flushed to disk. • Bigger value for wal_buffer in case of lot of concurrent connection gives better performance. !9

10.PostgreSQL Tuning - effective_cache_size • The effective_cache_size provides an estimate of the memory available for disk caching.  • It is just a guideline, not the exact allocated memory or cache size. • It should be large enough to hold most accessed tables, but at the same time small enough to avoid swap. !10

11. PostgreSQL Tuning - work_mem • This configuration is used for complex sorting. !11

12.PostgreSQL Tuning - maintenance_work_mem • maintenance_work_mem is a memory setting used for maintenance tasks. • The default value is 64MB. • Setting a large value helps in tasks like VACUUM, RESTORE, CREATE INDEX, ADD FOREIGN KEY and ALTER TABLE. !12

13.PostgreSQL Tuning - synchronous_commit • This is used to enforce that commit will wait for WAL to be written on disk before returning a success status to the client.  • This is a trade-off between performance and reliability. • Increasing reliability decreases performance and vice versa. !13

14.PostgreSQL Tuning - checkpoint_timeout • PostgreSQL writes changes into WAL. The checkpoint process flushes the data into the data files. • More checkpoints have a negative impact on performance. !14

15.Tune Linux !15

16.Linux Tuning - Huge Pages • Linux, by default uses 4K memory pages. • Linux also has Huge Pages, Transparent huge pages. • BSD has Super Pages. • Windows has Large Pages. • Linux default page size is 4K. • Default Huge page size is 2MB. !16

17.Linux Tuning - vm.swappiness  This is another kernel parameter that can affect the performance of the database. • Used to control the swappiness (swapping pages to and from swap memory into RAM) behaviour on a Linux system.  !17

18.Linux Tuning / vm.overcommit_memory and vm.overcommit_ratio • Applications acquire memory and free that memory when it is no longer needed. • But in some cases an application acquires too much memory and does not release it.  This can invoke the OOM killer. 1.Heuristic overcommit, Do it intelligently (default); based kernel heuristics 2.Allow overcommit anyway 3.Don’t over commit beyond the overcommit ratio. !18

19.Linux Tuning - vm.dirty_background_ratio / vm.dirty_background_bytes • The vm.dirty_background_ratio is the percentage of memory filled with dirty pages that need to be flushed to disk. • Flushing is done in the background. 
 The value of this parameter ranges from 0 to 100; !19

20.Linux Tuning - vm.dirty_ratio / vm.dirty_bytes • The vm.dirty_ratio is the percentage of memory filled with dirty pages that need to be flushed to disk. • Flushing is done in the foreground. 
 The value of this parameter ranges from 0 to 100; !20

21.Blogs Tuning PostgreSQL Database Parameters to Optimise Performance. https://www.percona.com/blog/2018/08/31/tuning-postgresql-database- parameters-to-optimize-performance/ Tune Linux Kernel Parameters For PostgreSQL Optimisation https://www.percona.com/blog/2018/08/29/tune-linux-kernel-parameters-for- postgresql-optimization/ !21