1.Scaling Automated Database Monitoring at Uber … with M3 and Prometheus Richard Artoul
2.Agenda 01 Automated database monitoring 02 Why scaling automated monitoring is hard 03 M3 architecture and why it scales so well 04 How you can use M3
3.Uber’s “Architecture” 4000+ microservices - 2015 2019 Most of which directly or indirectly depend on storage 22+ storage technologies - Ranging from C* to MySQL 1000’s of dedicated servers running databases - Monitoring all of these is hard
4.Monitoring Databases Application Technology Application Hardware
5.Hardware Level Metrics
6.Technology Level Metrics E E
7.Application Level Metrics ● Number of successes, errors, and latency broken down by ○ All queries against a given database ○ All queries issue by a specific service ○ A specific query ■ SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE USER_ID = ?
9.What’s so hard about that?
10.Monitoring Applications at Scale 1200 Microservices w/ dedicated storage 100 Instances per service 20 Instances per DB cluster 20 Queries per service X 10 Metrics per query 480 100+million millionunique time series dollars!
11.Workload 800M 110M Datapoints emitted pre- Writes per second/s aggregation (post replication) 200B 9B Datapoints read per second Unique Metric IDs
12.How do we do it?
13.A Brief History of M3 ● 2014-2015: Graphite + WhisperDB ○ No replication, operations were ‘cumbersome’ ● 2015-2016: Cassandra ○ Solved operational issues ○ 16x YoY Growth ○ Expensive (> 1500 Cassandra Hosts) ○ Compactions => R.F=2 ● 2016-Today: M3DB
15.M3DB An open source distributed time series database ● Store arbitrary timestamp precision data points at any resolution for any retention ● Tag (key/value pair) based inverted index ● Optimized file-system storage with minimal need for compactions of time series data for real-time workloads
16.High-Level Architecture Like a Log Structured Merge Tree (LSM) Except a typical LSM has levelled or size based compaction M3DB has time window compaction
17.Topology and Consistency ● Strong consistent topology (using etcd) ○ No gossip ○ Replicated with zone/rack aware layout and configurable replication factor ● Consistency managed via synchronous quorum writes and reads ○ Configurable consistency level for both read and write
18.Cost Savings and Performance ● Disk Usage in 2017 ○ ~1.4PB for Cassandra at R.F=2 ○ ~200TB for M3DB at R.F=3 ● Much higher throughput per node with M3DB ○ Hundreds of thousands of writes/s on commodity hardware
19.But what about the index?
20.Centralized Elasticsearch Index ● Actual time series data was stored in Cassandra and the M3DB ● But indexing of data (for querying) was handled by Elasticsearch ● Worked for us for a long time ● … but scaling writes and reads required a lot of engineering
21.Elasticsearch Index - Write Path M3DB Influx of new metrics: “Don’t write cache” 1. Large Service Indexer Deployment Redis 2. Datacenter Failover m3agg Cache E.S
22.Elasticsearch Index - Read Path 1 E.S Query 2 M3DB
23.Elasticsearch Index - Read Path Query Redis Query Cache E.S Need high T.T.L to prevent overwhelming E.S … but high T.T.L means long delay for new time series to become queryable
24.Elasticsearch Index - Read Path Short TTL Redis Query Cache E.S Short Merge on Query read Redis Query Cache E.S Long Long TTL
25.Elasticsearch Index - Final Breakdown ● Two elasticsearch clusters with separate configuration ● Two query caches ● Two don’t-write caches ● A stateful indexing tier that requires consistent hashing, an in-memory cache, and breaks everything if you deploy it too quickly ● Another service just for automatically rotating the short-term elasticsearch cluster indexes ● A background process that’s always running and trying to delete stale documents from the long term index
26.M3 Inverted Index ● Not nearly as expressive or feature-rich as Elasticsearch ● … but like M3DB, it’s designed for high throughput ● Temporal by nature (T.T.Ls are cheap) ● Fewer moving parts
27.M3 Inverted Index ● Primary use-case, support queries in the form: ○ service = “foo” AND ○ endpoint = “bar” AND ○ client_version regexp matches “3.*” service=”foo” endpoint=”bar” client_version=”3.*” AND AND AND → Intersection client_version=”3.1” OR → Union OR client_version=”3.2” OR
28.M3 Inverted Index - F.S.Ts ● The inverted index is similar to Lucene in that it uses F.S.T segments to build an efficient and compressed structure for fast regexp. ● Each time series’ label has its own F.S.T that can be searched to find the offset to unpack another data structure that contains the set of metrics IDs associated with a particular label value (postings list) Encoded Relationships are --> 4 ate --> 2 see --> 3 Compressed + fast regexp!
29.M3 Inverted Index - Postings List ● For every term combination in the form of service=”foo” need to store a set of metric IDs (integers) that match, this is called a postings list. ● Index is broken into blocks and segments, so need to be able to calculate intersection (AND - across terms) and union (OR - within a term). 12P.M -> 2P.M Index Block Intersect → AND service=”foo” INTERSECT endpoint=”bar” INTERSECT client_version=”3.*” Union → OR client_version=”3.1” Union Primary data structure for the postings list in M3DB is the roaring bitmap client_version=”3.2” Union