021-Robot Morality

This chapter is mainly about robot morality,which generally includes robot behavior and human behavior,morality for non-military robots,robots that look human,receptionist robots,robots for elderly in Japan,jobs for robots and so on.

1.Do we need robot morality? 1

2. WHAT IS INTELLIGENCE? 1. Pragmatic definition of intelligence: “an intelligent system is a system with the ability to act appropriately (or make an appropriate choice or decision) in an uncertain environment.” – An appropriate action (or choice) is that which maximizes the probability of successfully achieving the mission goals (or the purpose of the system) 2. Intelligence need not be at the human level

3.Human-Robot Interaction interaction intelligence morality Consciousness? 3

4.Robot Morality is a relatively new research area which is becoming very popular because of military and assistive robotics.

5. WHY ROBOT MORALITY ?  Robots are becoming These robots live in human technically extremely environment and can harm humans sophisticated. physically. Military unmanned vehicles are robots Space, air, ground, water  The emerging robot is a machine with sensors, processors, and effectors able to perceive the environment, have situational awareness, make appropriate decisions, and act upon the environment  Various sensors: active and passive optical and ladar vision, acoustic, ultrasonic, RF, microwave, touch, etc.  Various effectors: propellers, wheels, tracks, legs, hybrids

6. Ethical concerns: Robot behavior • How do we want our intelligent systems to behave? • How can we ensure they do so? • Asimov’s Three Laws of Robotics: 1. A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. 2. A robot must obey orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law. 3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law. 6

7. Ethical concerns: Human behavior 1. Is it morally justified to create intelligent systems with these constraints? – As a secondary question, would it be possible to do so? 2. Should intelligent systems have free will? Can we prevent them from having free will?? 3. Will intelligent systems have consciousness? (Strong AI) – If they do, will it drive them insane to be constrained by artificial ethics placed on them by humans? 4. If intelligent systems develop their own ethics and morality, will we like what they come up with? 7

8.Department of Defense (DOD) PATH TOWARD AUTONOMY

9. A POTPOURRI OF MILITARY ROBOTS  Many taxonomies have been used for robotic air, ground, and water vehicles: based on size, endurance, mission, user, C3 link, propulsion, mobility, altitude, level of autonomy, etc., etc.

10.All autonomous future military robots will need morality, household and assistive robots as well

11.WHICH TECHNOLOGIES ARE RELATED TO ROBOT MORALITY?  Various control system architectures:  deliberative,  reactive,  hybrid  Various command, control, and communications systems:  cable,  fiber optic,  RF,  laser,  acoustic  Various human/machine interfaces:  displays,  telepresence,  virtual reality  Various theories of intelligence and autonomy;  Evolutionary  Probabilistic  Learning  Developmental Can we build morality without  Cognitive intelligence?

12.Morality for non-military robots that deal directly with humans. The Tokyo University of Science: Saya

13. Robots that look human •  "Robots that look human tend to be a big hit with young children and the elderly," – Hiroshi Kobayashi, Tokyo University of Science professor and Saya's developer, said yesterday. • "Children even start crying when they are scolded." 13

14. Human-Robot Interaction with human-like humanoid robots •  "Simply turning our grandparents over to teams of robots abrogates our society's responsibility to each other, and encourages a loss of touch with reality for this already mentally and physically challenged population, „ – Kobayashi said. 14

15. Can robots replace humans? • Noel Sharkey, robotics expert and professor at the University of Sheffield, believes robots can serve as an educational aid in inspiring interest in science, but they can't replace humans. 15

16. Robot to help people? http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-03/12/content_10995694.htm • Kobayashi says Saya is just meant to help people and warns against getting hopes up too high for its possibilities. • "The robot has no intelligence. It has no ability to learn. It has no identity," he said. "It is just a tool.„ 16

17.Receptionist robots

18.Receptionist 18

19.MechaDroyd Typ C3 Business Design, Japan What kind of morality we expect from: - Robot for disabled? - Receptionist robot? - Robot housemaide? - Robot guide ? 19

20. Human Robot Interaction: Robots for elderly in Japan 20

21. Jobs for robots http://uk.reuters.com/article/idUKT27506220080408 • TOKYO (Reuters) - Robots could fill the jobs of 3.5 million people in graying Japan by 2025, – a thinktank says, helping to avert worker shortages as the country's population shrinks. 21

22. Robots to fill jobs in Japan • Japan faces a 16 percent slide in the size of its workforce by 2030 while the number of elderly will mushroom, the government estimates, raising worries about who will do the work in a country unused to, and unwilling to contemplate, large-scale immigration. 22

23. HR-Interaction Robots in in to fill jobs Japan Japan • The thinktank, the Machine Industry Memorial Foundation, says robots could help fill the gaps, ranging from microsized capsules that detect lesions to high-tech vacuum cleaners. 23

24. HR-Interaction Robots in in to fill jobs Japan Japan • Rather than each robot replacing one person, the foundation said in a report that robots could make time for people to focus on more important things.“ 24

25. What is more important than work? • What kind of „more important things“? • This is an ethical question. 25

26. using robots that monitor the health of older people in Japan „Japan could save 2.1 trillion yen ($21 billion) of elderly insurance payments in 2025 by using robots that monitor the health of older people, so they don't have to rely on human nursing care, the foundation said in its report. 26

27. Plans for robot nursing in Japan • What are the consequences for relying on robot nursing? • This is an ethical question.

28. Assistive Robots • Caregivers would save more than an hour a day if robots: 1. helped look after children, 2. helped older people, 3. did some housework 4. reading books out loud 5. helping bathe the elderly

29. How children and elderly will respond? 1. How will children and elderly react to robots taking „care“ of them? 2. This is an ethical question.