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Matrix Capsules With EM Routing

Matrix Capsules With EM Routing

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A capsule is a group of neurons whose outputs represent different properties of the same entity. Each layer in a capsule network contains many capsules. We describe a version of capsules in which each capsule has a logistic unit to represent the presence of an entity and a 4x4 matrix which could learn to represent the relationship between that entity and the viewer (the pose). A capsule in one layer votes for the pose matrix of many different capsules in the layer above by multiplying its own pose matrix by trainable viewpoint-invariant transformation matrices that could learn to represent part-whole relationships. Each of these votes is weighted by an assignment coefficient. These coefficients are iteratively updated for each image using the Expectation-Maximization algorithm such that the output of each capsule is routed to a capsule in the layer above that receives a cluster of similar votes. The transformation matrices are trained discriminatively by backpropagating through the unrolled iterations of EM between each pair of adjacent capsule layers.
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