Memory management

Not all memory addresses are the same -ZONE_DMA: DMA memory (< 16MB) --Really old I/O devices that have constrained addresses -ZONE_DMA32: 32 bit DMA memory ( < 4GB) --Older I/O devices that only support 32 bit DMA -ZONE_NORMAL: Generic Kernel memory --Always directly addressable by the kernel Linux groups memory into zones -Based on the use cases for memory -Allow allocations to occur in a given zone -How?
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1.Memory management

2.Linked Lists

3.structs and memory layout l ist.next l ist.prev l ist.next l ist.prev l ist.next l ist.prev fox fox fox

4.Linked lists in Linux fox fox fox list { .next . prev } node list { .next . prev } list { .next . prev }

5.What about types? Calculates a pointer to the containing struct struct list_head fox_list ; struct fox * fox_ptr = list_entry ( fox_list -&gt;next, struct fox, node);

6.List access methods struct list_head some_list ; list_add ( struct list_head * new_entry , struct list_head * list); list_del ( struct list_head * entry_to_remove ); struct type * ptr ; list_for_each_entry ( ptr , &amp; some_list , node){ … } struct type * ptr , * tmp_ptr ; list_for_each_entry_safe ( ptr , tmp_ptr , &amp; some_list , node) { list_del ( ptr ); kfree ( ptr ); }

7.Page Frame Database /* Each physical page in the system has a struct page associated with * it to keep track of whatever it is we are using the page for at the * moment. Note that we have no way to track which tasks are using * a page */ struct page { unsigned long flags; // Atomic flags: locked, referenced, dirty, slab, disk atomic_t _count; // Usage count, atomic_t _ mapcount ; // Count of ptes mapping in this page struct { unsigned long private; // Used for managing page used in file I/O struct address_space * mapping; // Used to define the data this page is holding }; pgoff_t index; // Our offset within mapping struct list_head lru ; // Linked list node containing LRU ordering of pages void * virtual; // Kernel virtual address };

8.Memory Zones Not all memory addresses are the same ZONE_DMA : DMA memory (&lt; 16MB) Really old I/O devices that have constrained addresses ZONE_DMA32 : 32 bit DMA memory ( &lt; 4GB) Older I/O devices that only support 32 bit DMA ZONE_NORMAL : Generic Kernel memory Always directly addressable by the kernel Linux groups memory into zones Based on the use cases for memory Allow allocations to occur in a given zone How?

9.Buddy Allocator Memory allocations are all backed by physical pages Kernel allocations are persistent Cannot be moved or swapped Must find contiguous sets of pages Allocations all come from free lists Linked list of unallocated resources Code example

10.Allocating pages Return entry/entries from page list Scans various lists for page(s) to allocate struct page * alloc_pages ( gfp_t flags, int order); void * page_address ( struct page * page) u nsigned long page_to_pfn ( struct page * pg );

11.kmalloc k ernel version of malloc m anages global heap, accessible by all kernel threads Returns kernel virtual addresses void * k malloc ( size_t size, gfp_t flags);

12.g fp_t What are these gfp_t flags? Directions to allocator Where to get the memory from What steps allocator can take to find memory Some Examples: Zone GFP_DMA, GFP_DMA32, GFP_NORMAL Behavior GFP_ATOMIC, GFP_KERNEL

13.vmalloc Linux limits the number of contiguous pages you can allocate MAX_ORDER typically is 11 (32MB) 2^11 pages What if you need to allocate more? Must do the allocation in virtual memory void * v malloc (unsigned long size); Allocates a virtually contiguous address region Backed by physically discontinuous pages

14.Slab allocator Optimization for kernel allocations Provides a free list (or cache) of unused allocations of a certain type Don’t have to search for a free region Allocations become (almost) constant time Create special caches for certain types of common allocations i.e. network packets, inodes , process descriptors Allocate those types using a special allocator Slab subsystem dynamically ensures that enough memory is available Allocates and frees pages behind the scenes