19-Mutual Exclusion and Leader Elections

Mutual Exclusion Using Voting Misra’s Token Recovery Algorithm Election Algorithms

1.CSC2/458 Parallel and Distributed Systems Mutual Exclusion and Leader Elections Sreepathi Pai March 29, 2018 URCS

2.Outline Mutual Exclusion Using Voting Misra’s Token Recovery Algorithm Election Algorithms

3.Outline Mutual Exclusion Using Voting Misra’s Token Recovery Algorithm Election Algorithms

4.From the previous lecture • Does a process need to wait for all replicas to reply before checking majority? • No [it would NOT (thanks, Mohsen!) solve the problem raised by Andrew, but would lead to lower utilization] • How many processes need to fail? • f >= m − N/2, where • m = N/2 + 1 • Does this mean mutual exclusion can be violated? • Yes (with very low probability, see Lin et al. 2014)

5.Different Types of Failures (Thomas) • How does fail recovery compare with fail stop? • Fail stop: Process operates correctly, fails in a detectable way and remains failed • Fail recovery: Process fails and “restarts”

6.Outline Mutual Exclusion Using Voting Misra’s Token Recovery Algorithm Election Algorithms

7.Recall Token-based Mutual Exclusion • A token circulates in an (unidirectional) ring • Process i sends token to Process i + 1 (modulo N) • A process holding the token can perform actions on shared resources • i.e. it is in the critical section • A tokens can be lost • released by process i but not received by process j

8.Loss of token • Two problems • Detecting loss • Regenerating a single token

9.One possible solution • Detect loss of token using timeouts • Perform leader election • Leader generates new token • This solution in a few slides

10.Misra’s algorithm for detecting token loss and regeneration • Use two tokens X and Y • X is also the mutual exclusion token (but not Y ) • X and Y detect the loss of each other • Assume in order receipt

11.Key Insight “A token at a process pi can guarantee the other token is lost if since this token’s last visit to pi , neither this token nor pi have seen the other token.” - Misra, 1983, Detecting Termination of Distributed Computations Using Markers, PODC • What does it mean for: • a process to have seen a token? • for a token to have seen the other token?

12.The Algorithm: Setup • Associate nX and nY , two integers with X and Y • Initialize nX and nY to +1 and -1 respectively • Each token carries its value with it (i.e nX or nY ) • Each process pi contains a mi initialized to zero • remembers the last token seen and its value

13.The Algorithm: Working When tokens encounter each other: nX = nX + 1 nY = nY - 1 When pi encounters Y (analogous code to encountering X not shown): if m_i == nY: /* token X is lost */ /* regenerate token X */ nY -= 1 nX = -nY else: m_i = nY end if

14.Do we need infinite precision? • nX can become arbitrarily large • nY can become arbitrarily small • Can we avoid this? • What is the invariant we need to maintain? • When are counters updated? • How many such events can happen between two visits to pi ?

15.Other notes Misra proposed this algorithm for termination detection. We will revisit it. But can you see how it may apply? • All processes are in either IDLE or ACTIVE • Receiving a message marks process as ACTIVE • Processes can only quit when all of them are IDLE and there are no messages in flight

16.Outline Mutual Exclusion Using Voting Misra’s Token Recovery Algorithm Election Algorithms

17.Electing Leaders • Initiating an election • Anytime • Detecting a winner and making sure everybody agrees on the same winner • Using process IDs to break ties for example

18.Ring-based Elections: Selective Extension • (Logical) Unidirectional ring topology • Two message types, both contain a process ID: • ELECTION • ELECTED

19.Algorithm: Part I A process can initiate an election anytime. Process pi does this by sending a ELECTION(pi ) to its neighbour and “marking itself” as participating in an election. On receiving message ELECTION(X), a process pj : if X > p_j: participating = T send(ELECTION(X)) elif X < p_j: participating = T send(ELECTION(p_j)) elif X == p_j: send(ELECTED(p_j))

20.Algorithm: Part II When receiving ELECTED(Y): participating = F coordinator = Y if Y != p_j: send(ELECTED(Y))

21.Textbook has slight modifications • Sends lists instead of one number • Skips dead nodes [6,0,1] [6,0,1,2] [6,0,1,2,3] 1 2 3 4 [3,4,5,6,0,1] [3,4,5,6,0,1,2] [3] [6,0] [3,4,5,6,0] [3,4] [6,0,1,2,3,4] [3,4,5,6] [3,4,5] 0 7 6 5 [6] [6,0,1,2,3,4,5]

22.The Bully Algorithm The coordinator with the highest process ID always wins. • Three types of messages: • ELECTION (initiation) • OK (resolution) • COORDINATOR (verdict)

23.Bully Algorithm in Action: Initiation 1 2 5 ion E lect Election 4 6 El ect io n 0 3 7

24.Bully Algorithm in Action: Resolution 1 2 5 OK OK 4 6 0 3 7

25.Bully Algorithm in Action: Further Elections 1 2 5 Election n ctio 4 6 Ele n tio ec 0 El 3 7

26.Bully Algorithm in Action: Resolution 1 2 5 OK 4 6 0 3 7

27.Bully Algorithm in Action: Final Verdict 1 2 5 Coordinator 4 6 0 3 7

28.Algorithm Any process pi can initiate an election at any time: • Send ELECTION message to all processes pk such that k > i • Wait for OK replies • If no replies (within a timeout), process pi has won and announces win using COORDINATOR On receiving an ELECTION message: • Send OK to sender • Sender cannot become a coordinator • Initiate election if any higher processes known to exist • if not, process is new coordinator, send COORDINATOR

29.What happens when 7 comes back online? 1 2 5 Coordinator 4 6 0 3 7