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1 .文学翻译 张宝林 副教授 2014 年 9 月
2 . CONTENTS Part I The Fundamentals of Literary Translation Chapter 1 Why do literary translation? Chapter 2 The uniqueness of literary translation Chapter 3 Getting started Chapter 4 Preparing to translate Chapter 5 Staying on the track Chapter 6 Stages of translation
3 . CONTENTS Part II The Techniques of Literary Translation Chapter 1 Decisions at the outset Chapter 2 What literary translators really translate? Chapter 3 Style in translation Chapter 4 How to translate fiction? Chapter 5 How to translate poetry? Chapter 6 Other areas of literary translation Chapter 7 Pitfalls and how to avoid them
4 . CONTENTS Part III Literary Translation: Comparison and Appreciation Chapter 1 Tess of the D’Urbervilles (excerpts) and Two Chinese Versio ns Chapter 2 Uncle Tom’s Cabin (excerpts) and Two Chinese Versions Chapter 3 《红楼梦》 (excerpts) and Two English Versions Chapter 4 《水浒传》 (excerpts) and Three English Versions Chapter 5 In a station of Metro and Four Chinese Versions Chapter 6 Shakespeare’s Sonnet 18 and Four Chinese Versions Chapter 7 《枫桥夜泊》 and Four English Versions Chapter 8 《春晓》 and Four English Versions
5 .Part 1 The Fundamentals of Literary Translation
6 . Chapter 1 Why do literary translation? 1. 1 Sharing the creative process The translator can experience the aesthetic jo ys of working with great literature, of recreating in a new language a work that would otherwise remain beyond reach.
7 . 1.2 Getting the intellectual rewards For some, the pleasure of puzzle-solving is an impo rtant element. How to find an equivalent for a source-l anguage pun? Can the tone of the original be reproduc ed in the target language? The delight, mental though i t be, that a translator feels in cutting through any of th ese Gordian knots can best be described as somewhere between chocolate and sex—you choose their rank-ord er.
8 . 1.3 Expanding the potential readership 1.4 Translating for the prestige or money Seeing one’s name on a title page just below that of a Nobel laureate is, well, heady, and the translator can improve his/her own prestige or get a lot of money . 1.5 Establishing the relationships By doing translation, some translators and write rs may develop their relationships and even become cl ose friends.
9 . 1.6 Getting access to a world they would never pe netrate in their home countries An ordinary citizen who would scarcely hope to have tea with literary luminaries of his own na tion can interact socially and professionally with their equivalents in other countries. For often un derappreciated word-workers like translators, th is is not inconsequential perk.
10 .Chapter 2 The uniqueness of literary translation 2.1 Style is a major concern in literary translation. 2.2 Literary translation is the most demanding type of translation.
11 . 2.3 What is literary language? Literary language is affective language. (Richards) Literary language is language of imagination. ( Cole ridge) Literary language is language of polysemy. ( Empso n) Literary language is language with literariness, whic h is not a function of the work itself, but a special way of reading. (Culler)
12 . 2.4 Translatability and untranslatability 2.4.1 Complete translatability and inc omplete translatability 2.4.2 Translatability is just relative.
13 . eg 1: L(a 孤(一 le 片 af 树 fa 叶 ll 落 s) 下） one 单 l —— 黄凌 译 iness ——E.E.Cummings
14 .eg 2: 寻寻觅觅，冷冷清清，凄凄惨惨戚戚。 ----- 李清照《声声慢》 I seek but seek in vain, I search and search again, I feel so sad, so drear, So lonely, without cheer. ------- ( 许渊冲 译 )
15 . eg 3: 寻寻觅觅，冷冷清清，凄凄惨惨戚戚。 --- 李清照《声声慢》 So dim, so dark, So dense, so dull, So damp, so dank, So dead! ----( 林语堂 译 )
16 . eg 2: 寻寻觅觅，冷冷清清，凄凄惨惨戚戚。 --- 李清照《声声慢》 I’ve a sense of something missing I must seek. Everything about me looks dismal and bleak. Nothing that gives me pleasure, I can find. (徐 忠杰 译 )
17 . eg 2: 寻寻觅觅，冷冷清清，凄凄惨惨戚戚。 ------- 李清照《声声慢》 Seeking, seeking , Chilly and quiet, Desol ate ,painful and miserable. ------- ( 杨宪益夫妇 译 ) Searching, seeking, endlessly / Alone, lon ely, /Moody, gloomy. ------( 朱纯生 译 )
18 . eg 2: 寻寻觅觅，冷冷清清，凄凄惨惨戚戚。 ----- 李清照《声声慢》 Search. Search. Seek. Seek. Cold . Cold. Cle ar. Clear. Sorrow. Sorrow. Pain. Pain. ---- (Kenneth Rexroth 译 ) Seek, seek, search, search; / Cold, cold, bare , bare; /Grief, grief, cruel, cruel grief. ------(Clara Candlin 译 )
19 . eg 3: 海水潮，朝朝潮，朝潮朝落 浮云涨，长长涨，长涨长消 Sea-waters tide, day to day tide, every day tide and every day ebb. Floating clouds appear, often appear, often appear and often go. ------( 周玉忠 译 )
20 .2.5 literary translator competence The literary translators must command tone, style, flex ibility, inventiveness, knowledge of the SL culture, the ab ility to glean meaning from ambiguity, an ear for sonorit y, and humility. More than in other branches of the translator’s art such as legal, technical/scientific, financial /commercial, or in interpretation (simultaneous or consecutive), literar y translation entails an unending skein of choices.
21 . 1. bilingual competence: possessing linguisti c competence in both languages. 2. bicultural competence: possessing comm unicative competence in both cultures. 3. a sense of responsibility 4. a keen insight 5. the innate talent
22 . 2.6 Literary translation: an ephemeral art The half-life of a translation, it has been said, i s from 30 to 40 years; every 30 years (or 40 or 50 – take your pick) the translation loses half its vita lity, its ability to communicate to the reader in a contemporary voice. If this is true, it follows that major works of literature must be retranslated p eriodically if they are to retain their function as a bridge between cultures and eras.
23 . Chapter 3 Getting started 3.1 How many languages? Before choosing what to translate, the questio n for some is what language or languages to tran slate.
24 .Two sides to the issue
25 . First: the argument for sticking to a single language ①The truly bicultural individual is a near impossi bility; ②A translator gains more standing among his or h er peers and achieves greater name recognition with b ook publishers by concentrating on a single language;
26 . Second: the multilingual view ①Two or more languages add another stri ng to one’s bow and one can avail himself/hers elf of the wide panoply of ,say, Hispanic literat ure as well as that of Francophone nations. ②If the bottom drops out of the market for novels or poetry in Language A, perhaps Lang uage B is enjoying a resurgence.
27 . 3.2 How to choose a work to translate? 3.3 Some tips to maximize your chance of success and min imize unpleasant surprises ： ①Once you’ve found someone whose novel clamors for a larger readership in the TL, look for a short story by the s ame writer. Or pick a self-contained excerpt from the lon ger work that functions well as a stand-alone passage — a ll things being equal, shorter texts have a better chance of publication in periodicals.
28 . ②Resolve all authorization issues before starting . Don’t expose yourself to the disappointment of s weating away on a translation only to learn that t he foreign rights aren’t available. ③Have a game plan before you begin. Where do you foresee publishing the translation? If you ca n’t rattle off at least three periodicals that publis h similar translated works, you haven’t done you r homework.
29 . ④Decide how much time you are willing to invest in the undertaking. How many drafts do you estimate will be necessary? Have you budgeted the time to wo rk on the project in the free hours from parenting an d/or your day job? ⑤Line up qualified readers to give a second opinion before you send the translation to an editor. At least one person proficient in both SL and TL is desirable, but in a pinch TL monolinguals will do, provided the y are endowed with a sense of style and a nose for inf elicities in English.