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Subprogram linkage semantics requires many action by the implementation. Simple subprograms have relatively basic actions. Stack-dynamic languages are more comple. Subprograms with stack-dynamic local variables and nested subprograms have two components. Activation record instances contain formal parameters and local variables among other things. Static chains are the primary method of implementing accesses to non-local variables in static-scoped languages with nested subprograms. Access to non-local variables in dynamic-scoped languages can be implemented by use of the dynamic chain or thru some central variable table method.
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1.Chapter 10 Implementing Subprograms

2.Augment Sebesta Material Programming Languages-Cheng (Fall 2004) http://www.cse.msu.edu/~cse452/Fall2004/Lectures/09-subprograms.ppt

3.Copyright © 2015 Pearson. All rights reserved. 1- 3 Chapter 10 Topics The General Semantics of Calls and Returns Implementing “Simple” Subprograms Implementing Subprograms with Stack-Dynamic Local Variables Nested Subprograms Blocks Implementing Dynamic Scoping

4.Copyright © 2015 Pearson. All rights reserved. 1- 4 The General Semantics of Calls and Returns The subprogram call and return operations of a language are together called its subprogram linkage General semantics of calls to a subprogram Parameter passing methods Stack-dynamic allocation of local variables Save the execution status of calling program Transfer of control and arrange for the return If subprogram nesting is supported, access to nonlocal variables must be arranged

5.Copyright © 2015 Pearson. All rights reserved. 1- 5 The General Semantics of Calls and Returns General semantics of subprogram returns: In mode and inout mode parameters must have their values returned Deallocation of stack-dynamic locals Restore the execution status Return control to the caller

6.Copyright © 2015 Pearson. All rights reserved. 1- 6 Implementing “Simple” Subprograms Call Semantics: - Save the execution status of the caller - Pass the parameters - Pass the return address to the called - Transfer control to the called

7.Copyright © 2015 Pearson. All rights reserved. 1- 7 Implementing “Simple” Subprograms (continued) Return Semantics: If pass-by-value-result or out mode parameters are used, move the current values of those parameters to their corresponding actual parameters If it is a function, move the functional value to a place the caller can get it Restore the execution status of the caller Transfer control back to the caller Required storage: Status information, parameters, return address, return value for functions, temporaries

8.Copyright © 2015 Pearson. All rights reserved. 1- 8 Implementing “Simple” Subprograms (continued) Two separate parts: the actual code and the non-code part (local variables and data that can change) The format, or layout, of the non-code part of an executing subprogram is called an activation record An activation record instance is a concrete example of an activation record (the collection of data for a particular subprogram activation)

9.Copyright © 2015 Pearson. All rights reserved. 1- 9 An Activation Record for “Simple” Subprograms

10.Simple Subprograms Required Storage: Status information of the caller Parameters return address functional value (if it is a function) Subprogram consists of 2 parts: Subprogram code Subprogram data The format, or layout, of the noncode part of an executing subprogram is called an activation record An activation record instance (ARI) is a concrete example of an activation record (the collection of data for a particular subprogram activation)

11.Copyright © 2015 Pearson. All rights reserved. 1- 11 Code and Activation Records of a Program with “Simple” Subprograms

12.Copyright © 2015 Pearson. All rights reserved. 1- 11 Code and Activation Records of a Program with “Simple” Subprograms

13.Copyright © 2015 Pearson. All rights reserved. 1- 13 Implementing Subprograms with Stack-Dynamic Local Variables More complex activation record The compiler must generate code to cause implicit allocation and deallocation of local variables Recursion must be supported (adds the possibility of multiple simultaneous activations of a subprogram)

14.Copyright © 2015 Pearson. All rights reserved. 1- 14 Typical Activation Record for a Language with Stack-Dynamic Local Variables

15.Copyright © 2015 Pearson. All rights reserved. 1- 15 Implementing Subprograms with Stack-Dynamic Local Variables: Activation Record The activation record format is static, but its size may be dynamic The dynamic link points to the top of an instance of the activation record of the caller An activation record instance is dynamically created when a subprogram is called Activation record instances reside on the run-time stack The Environment Pointer (EP) must be maintained by the run-time system. It always points at the base of the activation record instance of the currently executing program unit

16.Copyright © 2015 Pearson. All rights reserved. 1- 16 An Example: C Function void sub( float total, int part) { int list[5]; float sum; … }

17.Revised Semantic Call/Return Actions Caller Actions: Create an activation record instance Save the execution status of the current program unit Compute and pass the parameters Pass the return address to the called Transfer control to the called Prologue actions of the called: Save the old EP in the stack as the dynamic link and create the new value Allocate local variables Copyright © 2015 Pearson. All rights reserved. 1- 17

18.Revised Semantic Call/Return Actions (continued) Epilogue actions of the called: If there are pass-by-value-result or out-mode parameters, the current values of those parameters are moved to the corresponding actual parameters If the subprogram is a function, its value is moved to a place accessible to the caller Restore the stack pointer by setting it to the value of the current EP-1 and set the EP to the old dynamic link Restore the execution status of the caller Transfer control back to the caller Copyright © 2015 Pearson. All rights reserved. 1- 18

19.Copyright © 2015 Pearson. All rights reserved. 1- 19 An Example Without Recursion void fun1( float r ) { int s, t; ... fun2(s); ... } void fun2( int x) { int y; ... fun3(y); ... } void fun3( int q) { ... } void main() { float p; ... fun1(p); ... } main calls fun1 fun1 calls fun2 fun2 calls fun3

20.Example: without Recursion void A(int X) { int Y; … C(Y); } void B(float R) { int S, T; … A(S); … } void C(int Q) { … } void main() { float P; … B(P); … } 2 1 3 Collection of dynamic links present in the stack at any given time is called the dynamic chain

21.Copyright © 2015 Pearson. All rights reserved. 1- 21 Dynamic Chain and Local Offset The collection of dynamic links in the stack at a given time is called the dynamic chain , or call chain Local variables can be accessed by their offset from the beginning of the activation record, whose address is in the EP. This offset is called the local_offset The local_offset of a local variable can be determined by the compiler at compile time

22.Copyright © 2015 Pearson. All rights reserved. 1- 22 An Example With Recursion The activation record used in the previous example supports recursion int factorial ( int n) { <-----------------------------1 if (n <= 1) return 1; else return (n * factorial(n - 1)); <-----------------------------2 } void main() { int value; value = factorial(3); <-----------------------------3 }

23.Copyright © 2015 Pearson. All rights reserved. 1- 23 Activation Record for factorial

24.Stacks for calls to factorial Copyright © 2015 Pearson. All rights reserved. 1- 24

25.Stacks for returns from factorial Copyright © 2015 Pearson. All rights reserved. 1- 25

26.Subprograms with Stack-Dynamic Variables Recursion adds possibility of multiple simultaneous activations of a subprogram Each activation requires its own copy of formal parameters and dynamically allocated local variables, along with return address

27.Subprograms with Recursion int factorial (int n) { … if (n <= 1) return 1; else return n*factorial(n-1); … } void main() { int value; value = factorial(3); … }

28.Subprograms with Recursion int factorial (int n) { … if (n <= 1) return 1; else return n*factorial(n-1); … } void main() { int value; value = factorial(3); … }

29.Subprograms with Recursion int factorial (int n) { … if (n <= 1) return 1; else return n*factorial(n-1); … } void main() { int value; value = factorial(3); … }