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Charles Babbage first described a general purpose analytical engine in 1837, but worked on the design until his death in 1871 It was never built As designed, it would have been programmed using punch-cards and would have included features such as sequential control, loops, conditionals and branching. If constructed, it would have been the first “computer” as we think of them today.
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1.History of Computing - Overview Prof. Steven A. Demurjian Computer Science & Engineering Department The University of Connecticut 371 Fairfield Way, Box U-255 Storrs, CT 06269-3255 Steven.Demurjian@uconn.edu http://www.engr.uconn.edu/~steve (860) 486–4818 (Office) (860) 486-3719 (CSE Office)

2.History of Computing Review History of Computing https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_computing Conglomeration of Numerous Presentations A BRIEF History of Computing: People and machines https ://www.cs.arizona.edu/~mercer/Presentations/170/02-BriefHistoryOfComputing.ppt Computers /Timelines & History/Notable Quotes http://cse.unl.edu/~lksoh/Classes/CSCE155_Fall05/HistoryComputing2.ppt

3.A BRIEF History of Computing: People and machines Institute for Personal Robots in Education (IPRE) ‏ https://www.cs.arizona.edu/~mercer/Presentations/170/02-BriefHistoryOfComputing.ppt

4.Blaise Pascal’s Calculator was the first mechanical device Could add and subtract to help his father to collect taxes at Rouen Had carry over by connected gears: 10 turns added 1 Gottfried Leibniz extended this for multiplication PASCALINE 1642 4 1960s

5.First fully automated and programmable Loom Punch cards used to “program” the pattern to be woven into cloth Was a real boon to mill owners, but put many loom operators out of work Angry mobs smashed Jacquard looms and once attacked Jacquard himself. Another example of labor unrest following technological innovation Most studies show that, overall, technology has actually increased the number of jobs Jacquard Loom 1804 5 10,000 cards to weave this self-portrait

6.English mathematician, engineer, philosopher and inventor Originated the concept of the programmable computer, and designed one Charles Babbage 1791-1871 6

7.Difference Engine DESIGN 1882 Aug 20 2007 7 Numerical tables were constructed by hand using large numbers of humans Annoyed by the many human errors this produced, Charles Babbage designed a “difference engine” that could calculate values of polynomial functions Built in 2002

8.1837 – Analytical Engine Aug 20 2007 8 Charles Babbage first described a general purpose analytical engine in 1837, but worked on the design until his death in 1871 It was never built As designed, it would have been programmed using punch-cards and would have included features such as sequential control, loops, conditionals and branching. If constructed, it would have been the first “computer” as we think of them today

9.1837 – Analytical Engine Aug 20 2007 8 Charles Babbage first described a general purpose analytical engine in 1837, but worked on the design until his death in 1871 It was never built As designed, it would have been programmed using punch-cards and would have included features such as sequential control, loops, conditionals and branching. If constructed, it would have been the first “computer” as we think of them today

10.British pioneering computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, mathematical biologist Founder of computer science Turing Test (for AI)‏ Turing Machine Helped build Colossus, a computer to break the Enigma code during world war two It’s been said their work ended the war 2 years early Alan Turing 1912-1954 Aug 20 2007 10

11.TurinG MACHINE 1936 Aug 20 2007 11 A Turing machine is a hypothetical device with an unlimited memory capacity in the form of an infinite tape marked out into squares, on each of which a symbol can be printed The machine can alter the scanned symbol The tape can be moved back and forth through the machine, this being one of the elementary operations of the machine

12.TurinG MACHINE 1936 Aug 20 2007 12 Although simple, the Turing Machine is the essence of computation All modern day digital computers do what a Turing Machine can do It turned out that a Turing machine would have to exist for every problem you solve Turing described the Universal Turing Machine Universality: Any problem can be solved on one computer by allowing arbitrary input

13.Colossus Mark I & II 1943-1942 Aug 20 2007 13 The Colossus Mark I & II are widely acknowledged as the first programmable electric computers Used at Bletchley Park to decode German codes

14.Howard Aiken & Grace Hopper, Harvard Mark I Computer, 1944 Aug 20 2007 14 Computer was created by IBM for Harvard University Used to compute tables for the Navy and to determine whether implosion was a viable choice to detonate atomic bombs

15.1946 –John Eckert & John W. Mauchly – ENIAC 1 Computer Aug 20 2007 15 ENIAC was short for E lectronic N umerical I ntegrator A nd C omputer It was the first general purpose (programmable to solve any problem) electric computer It contained over 17,000 vacuum tubes, weighed 27 tones and drew 150 kW of power to operate The six female first programmers weren’t given any manuals but had real programs and real bugs and real deadlines.

16.Claude shannon 1916-2001 Aug 20 2007 16 “A Mathematical Theory of Communication” (1948) discussed (in 55 pages) how to have a message at one point be the same at another that proposed the binary digit (bit) The Founder of Information Theory: information can be treated like a measurable physical quantity helped translate circuit design from an art into a science

17.UNIVAC 1951 Aug 20 2007 17 First commercial computer - Between 1951 and 1958, 47 UNIVAC I computers were delivered 25 feet by 50 feet in size 5,600 tubes, 18,000 crystal diodes 300 relays Internal storage capacity of 1,008 fifteen bit words was achieved using 126 mercury delay lines

18.UNIVAC 1951 Aug 20 2007 18 UNIVAC tube board and individual vacuum tube

19.1947 –The transistor Aug 20 2007 19 Invented by William Shockley (seated) John Bardeen & Walter Brattain at Bell Labs The transistor replaces bulky vacuum tubes with a smaller, more reliable, and power saving solid sate circuit

20.Developed the first compiler at Remington Rand’s UNIVAC I She popularized the idea of machine-independent programming languages, which led to the development of COBOL She won the first "man of the year" award from the Data Processing Manage-ment Association in 1969 National Medal of Technology 1991 Rear Admiral in the Navy Grace Hopper 1906-1992 Aug 20 2007 20

21.Aug 20 2007 21 GRACE HOPPER FINDS THE FIRST BUG

22.1954 – FORTRAN Aug 20 2007 22 John Backus & IBM invent the first successful high level programming language, and compiler, that ran on IBM 701 computers FORmula TRANslation was designed to make calculating the answers to scientific and math problems easier

23.1958 – Integrated Circuit Aug 20 2007 23 Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments & Robert Noyce at Fairchild semiconductor independently invent the first integrated circuits or “the chip” Jack Kilby was awarded the National Medal of Science and was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame Received the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the integrated circuit

24.1 st commercial transistorized computers 1960 Aug 20 2007 24 DEC introduced the PDP-1 and IBM released the 7090 which was the fastest in the world

25.1 st computer game & word processor 1962 Aug 20 2007 25 Because the PDP-1 had a typewriter interface, editors like TECO (Text Editor and Corrector) were written for it. Steve Russell at MIT invents Spacewar , the first computer game running on a DEC PDP-1

26.1973-1976 – Ethernet Aug 20 2007 26 Robert Metcalfe at Xerox invents Ethernet so that multiple computers can talk to a new laser printer We have an ethernet connection at every AV station on campus

27.1974/1975 – Personal Computers Aug 20 2007 27 Scelbi Mark-8 Altair and IBM 5100 computers are first marketed to individuals (as opposed to corporations) They are followed by the Apple I,II, TRS-80, and Commodore Pet computers by 1977

28.First individual productivity software 1978 Aug 20 2007 28 VisiCalc Spreadsheet software and WordStar word processor are the “killer applications” for personal computers Especially for small business owners

29.Personal digit ASSIStant (PDA) 1980 Aug 20 2007 29 Hand held computers Could connect to the internet Out of use in 2010. Why?