# History of计算–founders国王

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1.History of Computing – Founders re. PLs Prof. Steven A. Demurjian Computer Science & Engineering Department The University of Connecticut 371 Fairfield Way, Box U-255 Storrs, CT 06269-3255 Steven.Demurjian@uconn.edu http://www.engr.uconn.edu/~steve (860) 486–4818 (Office) (860) 486-3719 (CSE Office)

2.Highlighting Contributions of Founders Pioneers of Computing https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_pioneers_in_computer_science Major Historical Figures: Charles Babbage, Ada Lovelace , John Backus Noam Chomsky , Edsger Dijkstra , Alan Turing Richard Hamming , Marvin Minsky , Grace Hopper John von Neumann, Frederick Alonzo Church, Additional Figures: Tim Berners-Lee, Edgar F. Codd , Margaret Hamilton, Donald Knuth , Bill Gates Lesley Lamport , John McCarthy, Barbara Liskov , Alan Kay, Stephen Cook, Seymour Cray ACM Turing Awards

3.ACM Turning Awards https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turing_Award http://amturing.acm.org/byyear.cfm

4.Ada Lovelace First Programmer Charles Babbage Designed Analytical Engine http://www.csus.edu/indiv/s/scanland/mis101/index_htm_files/babbage-abc-eniac.ppt

5.First General-Purpose Automated Digital Computer Charles Babbage, its father. Analytical Engine It was never completed by Babbage, due to a lack of standardized parts. English mathematician Frustrated genius One of the most interesting characters in the history of computers. Charles Babbage Analytical Engine Charles Babbage 1791-1871

6.Analytical Engine Analytical Engine CPU Central Processing Unit Primary Storage 1,000 50 –digit numbers ALU < > = + - Control Unit Output Cards Input Cards Secondary Storage Data on Cards

7.First General-Purpose Automated Digital Computer Charles Babbage Analytical Engine Characteristics continued: Arithmetic operations were performed automatically, without the intervention of a human operator. Controlled by a computer program: Read one card at a time, executed the instruction it contained, then read read the next card, and so on... Branched within the program under the control of the ALU.

8.Augusta Ada Byron, Lady of Lovelace, Dec 15, 1815 Born to Anna Isabella Milbanke and George Gordon Noel Byron Ada was privately home schooled in mathematics and science Died November 27, 1852at the age of 36 in London, England She was bled to death by her physicians, who were trying to treat her uterine cancer https://computersciencepre-ap1.wikispaces.com/file/view/Augusta+Ada+Byron,+Lady+of+Lovelace.ppt Ada Lovelace

9.What’s their invention? She is known as the first programmer, because she wrote a description of Charles Babbage’s early mechanical general-purpose computer, the analytical engine Ada’s Bernoulli calculation program for specialized calculus operations achieves correct values in today’s computers

10.What’s their invention? She is known as the first programmer, because she wrote a description of Charles Babbage’s early mechanical general-purpose computer, the analytical engine Ada’s Bernoulli calculation program for specialized calculus operations achieves correct values in today’s computers

11.Did someone help with the invention or who used the innovation process to enhance this development? Ada wrote a program for the Analytical Engine on her own, but she heard a lecture about the difference engine designed by Charles Babbage Ada was inspired her to write her own program based on his lecture

12.Works Cited Ada, Countess of Lovelace: Byron’s Legitimate Daughter . Doris Langley Moore. New York: Harper & Row, 1977. Ada, the Enchantress of Numbers . Betty A. Toole. Sausilito , Calif.: Strawberry Press, 1992. The Calculating Passion of Ada Byron . Joan Baum. Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books/ The Shoe String Press, 1986. http://www.cs.fit.edu/~ryan/ada/lovelace.html http://www.kerryr.net/pioneers/ada.htm

13.C omputational L inguistics INT roduction Lecture 1 Computers and Language http://staff.um.edu.mt/mros1/lin2160/

14.Feb 2010 -- MR CLINT - Lecture 1 14 Noam Chomsky Noam Chomsky’s work in the 1950s radically changed linguistics, making syntax central. Chomsky has been the dominant figure in linguistics ever since. Chomsky invented the generative approach to grammar.

15.Grace Hopper By: Joyce Blasingame http://www.slideshare.net/Elaine1975/grace-hopper-14275961 Teacher Mathematician Computer Scientist Inventor Systems Designer Software Programmer Marketing Whiz Military Leader

16.Grace Brewster Murray Hopper December 9, 1906 – January 1, 1992 Married in 1930 Husband died in 1945 1928 BA from Vassar College 1930 MA from Yale University 1934 PhD from Yale University

17.Admiral Hopper 1943 United States Naval Reserve 1946 Harvard’s Computation Laboratory 1949 Senior Mathematician at Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation 1955 Sperry Corporation 1967 Leader in the NDAC 1986 Retired from Navy with rank Rear Admiral, Senior Consultant to DEC

18.Compiler Grace’s biggest contribution to computing was the invention of the compiler. In 1952 the A-0 Compiler was completed.

19.First Computer “Bug” In 1951, Grace discovered the first computer "bug.“ A real moth found inside the computer. She removed the bug, and taped it into the UNIVAC I logbook. Origin of “Bug” In Smithsonian

20.Military Medals Defense Distinguished Service Medal Meritorious Service Medal American Campaign Medal World War II Victory Medal National Defense Service Medal Armed Forces Reserve Medal with two Hourglass Devices Naval Reserve Medal

21.Resources www.history.navy.mil/bios/hopper_grace.htm www.gracehopper.org www.cs.yale.edu/homes/tap/Files/hopper-story.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RZ0g5_NgRao

22.Alonzo Church June 14, 1903 – August 11, 1995 American mathematician and logician Made major contributions to: Mathematical logic and the Foundations of theoretical computer science web.eng.fiu.edu/~ arellano /1002/Computers/ Presentation 1. ppt

23.Alonzo Church He is best known for the lambda calculus, is a formal system for function definition, function application and recursion smallest universal programming language of the World It is equivalent to Turing machines. However, it emphasizes the use of transformation rules and does not care about the actual machine implementing them Underlies LISP, ML, etc. Church–Turing thesis, Frege–Church ontology, and the Church–Rosser theorem.

24.Church–Turing Thesis Informally it states that if an algorithm (a procedure that terminates) exists then there is an equivalent Turing machine, recursively-definable function, or applicable λ-function, for that algorithm. Today the thesis has near-universal acceptance

25.Alonzo Church: Mathematician. Philosopher. Computer Scientist? Alonzo Church is a mathematician and philosopher who developed the very first computer programming language known as Lambda Calculus. Church also worked with Alan Turing in the Church-Turing Thesis, which also was another huge impact on the world of computer science. LAMBDA CALCULUS Lambda (λ) Calculus is a system that is in the world of math logic and computer science for creating a computation by way of combining variables using abstraction. Today, λ Calculus has applications in several different areas: mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science. λ Calculus, along with Alan Turing’s Turing machine are important models in computation. EX: Start with the function: 2x Rewritten in Lambda as λ x [2x] Now solve this when x=3. λ x [2x](3) [2x](3) [2(3)] = 6 CHURCH TURING THESIS The Church-Turing thesis states that any real-world computation can be written into an equivalent computation involving a Turing Machine. ACCOMPLISHMENTS Church died in 1995 being a well decorated man in the math and computer science world. He earned a Ph.D. from Princeton University. His contributions to number theory and the theories of algorithms and computation laid a solid foundation to computer science. “He was a pioneer in the field of mathematical logic and the theory of computation” -Alan Turing wiki.western.edu/ mcis /images/3/3f/ Alonzo _ Church _draft1. ppt

26.Tim Berners Lee By Jack Neus socialstudiesorange.pbworks.com/f/ Tim + Berners + Lee . ppt

27.What did he do? He invented the World Wide Web, which linked hypertext with TCP and DNS. He invented W3 while working in CERN, a physics lab in Switzerland. Hypertext is the idea of jumping from one document to another. A web page is a document too. TCP and DNS were the early versions of WWW. That was what was used to create the first email.

28.Who was he? Tim Berners Lee was born on June 8, 1955. Tim Berners Lee graduated from Oxford University. Tim Berners Lee was 35 in 1989, when he first created the world wide web. Tim Berners Lee lives in London, England. Tim Berners Lee is now the president of W3C.

29.Company Statistics Tim Berners Lee founded W3C, otherwise known as the WWW Consortium. The company is private. You cannot buy shares of it. The company was founded in 1994. The business was a first of its kind, finally introducing things like web pages.