Color&Light

本章节主要介绍计算机视觉的颜色以及光应用方面的知识,定义了光,光的辐射测量单位,光辐射的能量,通量以及强度等做了介绍,此外介绍了光谱图;关于颜色方面,介绍了什么是色觉,颜色的同分异构体,怎么来定义计算机视觉的颜色等。
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1.Color & Light CMSC 435/634

2.Light Electromagnetic wave E & M perpendicular to each other & direction Photon wavelength l , frequency f = c/ l Visibile l ≈ 380 nm (blue) to 720 nm (red) Photon energy q = h f = h c/ l (in J) c = speed of light, h = Planck’s constant Spectral energy Q = J/nm

3.Light Infinite-dimensional function vector space spectrum( l ) Shine two lights on something adds energies Scale light energy, scales the intensity

4.Radiometric Units Term Symbol Units Spectral Energy Q J Spectral Power  = dQ/dt W = J/s Irradiance E = d /dA W/m 2 Radiant Intensity I = d /d W/ sr Radiance L = d 2 /(d dA ) W/( sr m 2 ) /nm dropped by graphics convention

5.Radiant Energy (Q) Total energy (Joules) Over all time, directions, area, …

6.Radiant Flux ( )  = dQ / dt in Watts = J/s Radiant energy per unit time This is the one you probably want Unless you are measuring total energy absorbed E.g. by a plant over hours of daylight

7.Radiant Intensity (I) I = d /d  in W/ sr Radiant Flux emitted per unit solid angle Light from a point in a small cone of directions

8.Radiosity (B) B = d / dA in W/m 2 All light leaving a patch of surface Emitted or reflected All directions at each point Measured per unit area

9.Irradiance (E) E = d / dA in W/m 2 All light entering a patch of surface All directions at each point Measured per unit area

10.L = d 2 /(d dA ) in W/( sr m 2 ) Light entering patch of surface from a small range of directions Per unit area Per unit solid angle Compare to Irradiance (over all directions) Radiance (L)

11.Spectral Graphs A = Incandescent light D = Daylight (50=horizon, 65=noon) F = Flourescent light

12.Color Perception

13.Color Perception Cones = function dot product For quantized spectra: Projects to a 3D subspace

14.Metamers Different spectrum, looks the same Same 3D projection

15.Color Basis Can transform to any 3D linear basis As long as it spans the same subspace Transform between bases with a 3x3 matrix

16.Linear Bases Additive (light) Tristimulus (LMS cone response) CIE XYZ (from color matching experiments) RGB (different for each device) Yuv , YC r C b , … Subtractive (pigment) CMY = 1-RGB (grade school Blue, Red, Yellow) CMYK

17.Chromaticity Normalize x = X / (X+Y+Z); y = Y / (X+Y+Z)

18.RGB Gamut Gamut = representable colors

19.Subtractive Start at white, remove R, G, or B

20.White Points & Color Temperature Color of radiating black body Specified in Kelvin degrees

21.Nonlinear Color Spaces HSV: Cylindrical Coordinates Hue = angle Saturation = distance from central axis Value = distance along axis

22.Nonlinear Perception Linear colors don’t look uniformly different Nonlinear Luminance Gamma ( sRGB ), L* uv Nonlinear Luminance & Color L*u*v*, L*a*b* Can measure color distances Nonlinear colors do not add

23.Photometric Units Visual intensity Term Symbol Units Luminous Energy Q talbot Lumens  = dQ/dt lm = talbot/s Illuminance (lux) E = d /dA lx = lm/m 2 Candelas I = d /d cd = lm/ sr Luminance (nit) L = d 2 /(d dA ) nt = cd/m 2

24.Dynamic Range Real world: High Dynamic range (HDR) Outside, moonlight 0.0014 nt Outside, sunrise 25 nt Outside, overcast 700 nt Outside, sunlight 5,000 nt Sky 7,000 nt Light blub 130,000 nt Sun 1,600,000,000 nt Displays: Low Dynamic Range (LDR) Typically about 1 nt to 250 nt

25.Tone Mapping Convert HDR to LDR Nonlinear tone mapping curve Adapt to overall intensity Time-dependent adaptation

26.Film Exposure Aperture in f/stop = focal length / diameter What matters is aperture area ∝ diameter 2 f/1, f/1.4, f/2, f/2.8 ( sqrt 1,2,4,8, … ) Controls light, but also depth of field Shutter time t = how long shutter is open Controls light, but also motion blur ISO = sensitivity Controls light, but also noise Exposure Value EV = log 2 (f 2 /t)

27.Dynamic Range “Stops” 1 stop = double the light LCD Display: 8-9 stops Film: 13-15 stops Eye: 20 stops Real world, moonlight to sun: 40 stops