Exokernel and Spin

本章节主要介绍了外内核Exokernel以及Spin内核,外内核系统,也被称为纵向结构操作系统,是一种比较极端的设计方法,它的设计理念是让用户程序的设计者来决定硬件接口的设计;而SPIN是一种以数据为中心的自适应通信路由协议。
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1.Extensible OSes Exokernel and SPIN Lecture 19, cs262a Ion Stoica & Ali Ghodsi UC Berkeley April 2, 2018

2.Today’s Papers “ Exokernel : An Operating System Architecture for Application-Level Resource Management ”, Dawson R. Engler , M. Frans Kaashoek , and James O’Toole Jr . https :// pdos.csail.mit.edu/6.828/2008/readings/engler95exokernel.pdf “SPIN : An Extensible Microkernel for Application-specific Operating System Services ”, Brian N. Bershad , Craig Chambers, Susan Eggers, Chris Maeda, Dylan McNamee, Przemysław Pardyak , Stefan Savage, and Emin Gün Sirer www.cs.cornell.edu/people/egs/papers/spin-tr94-03-03.pdf

3.3 Traditional OS services – Management and Protection Provides a set of abstractions Processes, Threads, Virtual Memory, Files, IPC APIs, e.g.,: POSIX Resource Allocation and Management Protection and Security Concurrent execution

4.Abstractions What is an abstraction? Generalization. Often an API in CS. Hides implementation details. What are the advantages of abstractions? Simpler. Easy to understand and use. Just follow the contract. How we fight complexity. Standardization. Many implementations all satisfy the abstraction. Loose coupling, e.g. Unix’ everything is a file, many implementations and all apps benefit from this standardization. What are the disadvantages of abstractions? Contract is a compromise. Least common denominator. Not perfect for each use case Performance often suffers (if you only could tweak an implementation detail of a particular implementation) Can create bloated software.

5.Context for These Papers (1990s) Windows was dominating the market Mac OS downward trend (few percents ) Unix market highly fragmented (few percents ) OS research limited impact Vast majority of OSes proprietary “Is OS research dead?” , popular panel topic at systems conferences of the era An effort to reboot the OS research, in particular, and OS architecture, in general

6.Challenge: “Fixed” Interfaces Both papers identify “fixed interfaces” provided by existing OSes as main challenge Fixed interfaces provide protection but hurt performance and functionality Exokernel : “ Fixed high-level abstractions hurt application performance because there is no single way to abstract physical resources or to implement an abstraction that is best for all applications . ” “ Fixed high-level abstractions limit the functionality of applications , because they are the only available interface between applications and hardware resources ”

7.Challenge: “Fixed” Interfaces Both papers identify “fixed interfaces” provided by existing OSes as main challenge Fixed interfaces provide protection but hurt performance and functionality SPIN: “ Existing operating systems provide fixed interfaces and implementations to system services and resources. This makes them inappropriate for applications whose resource demands and usage patterns are poorly matched by the services provided . ”

8.Problems in existing OSes Extensibility Abstractions overly general Apps cannot dictate management Implementations are fixed Performance Context switching expensive Generalizations and hiding information affect performance Protection and Management offered with loss in Extensibility and Performance

9.Symptoms Very few of innovations making into commercial OSes E.g., scheduler activations, efficient IPC, new virtual memory policies, … Applications struggling to get better performances They knew better how to manage resources, and the OS was “standing” in the way

10.Examples Illustrating the need for App Control Databases know better than the OS what pages they will access Can prefetch pages, LRU hurts their performance, why?

11.Two Papers, Two Approaches Exokernel : Very minimalist kernel, most functionality implemented in user space Assumed many apps have widely different requirements, maximal extensibility SPIN: Dynamically link extensions into the kernel Rely on programming language features, e.g. static typechecking Assumed device drivers need flexibility, so focused on how to enable them while staying protected

12.Exokernel A nice illustration of the end-to-end argument: ``general-purpose implementations of abstractions force applications that do not need a given feature to pay substantial overhead costs .’’ In fact the paper is explicitly invoking it (sec 2.2)! Corollary: Kernel just safely exposes resources to apps Apps implement everything else, e.g., interfaces/APIs, resource allocation pollcies

13.OS Component Layout Exokernel www.cs.cornell.edu/courses/CS6410/2011fa/lectures/08-extensible- kernels.pdf (Hakim Weatherspoon , Cornell University)

14.Exokernel Main I deas Kernel: resource sharing, not policies Library Operating System: responsible for the abstractions IPC VM Scheduling Networking

15.Lib OS and the Exokernel Lib OS (untrusted) can implement traditional OS abstractions (compatibility) Efficient ( LibOS in user space) Apps link with LibOS of their choice Kernel allows LibOS to manage resources, protects LibOSes

16.Philosophy “An exokernel should avoid resource management. It should only manage resources to the extent required by protection (i.e., management of allocation, revocation, and ownership ).” The motivation for this principle is our belief that distributed, application-specific, resource management is the best way to build efficient flexible systems.

17.ABSTRACTIONS ABSTRACTIONS OS

18.Exokernel design Securely expose hardware Decouple authorization from use of resources Authorization at bind time (i.e., granting access to resource) Only access checks when using resource E.g., LibOS loads TLB on TLB fault, and then uses it multiple times Expose allocation Allow LibOSes to request specific physical resources Not implicit allocation; LibOS should participate in every allocation d ecision

19.Exokernel design Expose names (CS trick #1 -1 ) Remove one level of indirection and expose useful attributes E.g., index in direct mapped caches identify physical pages conflicting Additionally, expose bookkeeping data structures E.g., freelist , disk arm position (?), TLB entries Expose revocation “Polite” and then forcibly abort

20.Example: Memory Guard TLB loads and DMA Secure binding: using self-authenticating capabilities For each page E xokernel creates a random value, check Exokernel records: {Page, Read/Write Rights , MAC(check, Rights) } When accessing page, owner need to present capability Page owner can change capabilities associated and deallocate it Large Software TLB (why?) TLB of that time small, LibOS can manage a much bigger TLB in software Expensive checks during page fault can be reduced with a larger TLB Self-authenticated capability

21.Example: Processor S haring Process time represented as linear vector of time slices Round robin allocation of slices Secure binding: allocate slices to LibOSes Simple, powerful technique: donate time slice to a particular process A LibOS can donate unused time slices to its process of choice If process takes excessive time, it is killed (revocation)

22.Example: Network Downloadable filters Application-specific Safe Handlers ( ASHes ) Can reply directly to traffic, e.g., can implement new transport protocols; dramatically reduce Secure biding happens at download time

23.SPIN

24.SPIN Use of language features for e xtensions Extensibility Dynamic linking and binding of extensions Safety Interfaces; type safety; extensions verified by compiler Performance Extensions not interpreted; run in kernel space

25.SPIN structure From Stefan Savage’s SOSP 95 presentation

26.SPIN Main I deas Extend the kernel at runtime through statically-checked extensions System and extensions written in Modula-3 Event/handler abstraction

27.Language: Modula 3 Designed by DEC and Olivetti (1980s) Descendent from Mesa Modern language (at that time) Interfaces Type safety E.g., Array bounds checking, storage m anagement, GC Threads Exceptions “Died” together with DEC (acquired by Compaq in 1998)

28.SPIN design Co-location Extensions dynamically linked into same memory-space as kernel Fast communication Enforced modularity Modula 3 extensions provide compile-time protection (memory and privileged instructions protected)

29.SPIN design Local protection domains Namespaces for extensions Avoid context switch through a function-call that decides which interfaces (extensions) can be accessed Dynamic call binding Binds events to extensions Handler pattern through function call