Text Entry for Computers and Handhelds, and Text Editing

The course is mainly about Text Entry for Computers and Handhelds, and Text Editing.Generally covered evaluating text entry,such as speed, errors;wobbrock and myers analysis algorithm; general issues with recognizers; general issues with text entry; mechanical typewriters; many other key layouts.
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1.1 © 2014 - Brad Myers Brad Myers 05-899A/05-499A : Interaction Techniques Spring, 2014 Lecture 12: Past to Future: Text Entry for Computers and Handhelds, and Text Editing

2.Overview Lots of work on text entry Little on text editing: “Regular” editing like Macintosh/Microsoft Word, etc. Moded editing like Bravo, VI/VIM, etc. Emacs -like control keys (different from control keys in “regular” editing ^V = scroll down by a page instead of paste Many variants for all operations E.g., move by character, word, line, sentence, expression, paragraph, block, method, document, … Elaborate macros and programmability make customization easier for experts © 2014 - Brad Myers 2

3.As of 2003 © 2014 - Brad Myers 3

4.Evaluating Text Entry: Speed Parameters: speed and errors Speed: Words-Per-Minute (WPM) Assumes 5 characters per word , including spaces and punctuation What are reasonable speeds? -- Wikipedia Computer users: 40 wpm (fast), 35 wpm (moderate), and 23 wpm (slow). Hunt-and-peck (2 finger): about 27-37 wpm Professional typists: 50 to 80 wpm, up to 120 wpm Fastest, 216 wpm Court reporters go up to 225 wpm or faster at very high accuracy Highest recorded = 375 wpm Handwriting: 22 to 31 wpm Speech Audio books: 150 WPM Auctioneers: about 250 wpm Fastest talking: 637 wpm Mobile devices – much slower (see below) Keystrokes per character (KSPC) – ratio of all chars, including backspaces, to final chars in string -- [MacKenzie 2002] © 2014 - Brad Myers 4

5.Evaluating Text Entry: Errors Based on: Jacob O. Wobbrock and Brad A. Myers. 2006. Analyzing the input stream for character- level errors in unconstrained text entry evaluations.  ACM Trans. Comput .-Hum. Interact.  13, 4 (Dec. 2006), 458-489. http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1188819 Uncorrected errors Errors that are left in the final document Most WPM measurements list these errors Usually quite low (2.23%, 0.79%, 0.36%, 0.53%, … in various studies) Corrected errors User notices an error and fixes it, usually with <backspace>, but possibly with arrow keys, etc. Counts as part of the WPM calculation An error-prone entry method ends up being slower Only a few measurement tests report these errors separately But user may intentionally backspace over correct chars to get at an earlier incorrect character Also non-recognitions, or no-entries – e.g., miss keyboard when tap, or gesture not recognized May be interested in which character is most error prone to enter Need to know about incorrect characters entered © 2014 - Brad Myers 5

6.Wobbrock and Myers analysis algorithm [ 2006] © 2014 - Brad Myers 6 More accurately measure the errors in text entry Based on the input stream – what actually entered. Measures “distance” between target and input stream Separates errors into incorrect: Insertions – characters incorrectly in input stream Omissions – characters missing Substitutions – wrong characters Can be corrected or not corrected Also, corrected not errors – happens a lot in touch typing Algorithm calculates all these Assumes <backspace> is reliable Also confusion matrix How often generate one character when mean another

7.General Issues with Recognizers If using character or handwriting recognition Accuracy of recognition Depends on how unique each stroke is How accurate user draws them How well the machine’s recognizer works But also whether user remembers the right stroke to draw Example: Palm Pilot Graffiti strokes: © 2014 - Brad Myers 7

8.General Issues with Text Entry Auto- prediction System guesses what you might be typing so you don’t have to type the rest Auto- correction System helps you fix errors automatically Sometimes combined © 2014 - Brad Myers 8

9.Mechanical Typewriters © 2014 - Brad Myers 9 First commercially successful typewriter by Christopher Latham Sholes , Carlos Glidden & others in about 1868. Patent sold to Remington, which produced it Used the QWERTY layout of keys to reduce likelihood of keys hitting each other & jamming Also the name “Type Writer” -- Wikipedia Lots of small variants for foreign keyboards

10.Mechanical Typewriters © 2014 - Brad Myers 9 First commercially successful typewriter by Christopher Latham Sholes , Carlos Glidden & others in about 1868. Patent sold to Remington, which produced it Used the QWERTY layout of keys to reduce likelihood of keys hitting each other & jamming Also the name “Type Writer” -- Wikipedia Lots of small variants for foreign keyboards

11.Stenotype Machine © 2014 - Brad Myers 11 Chord keyboard, used by court reporters Speeds of at least 180, 200, and 225 wpm World record: 375 wpm Dates back to 1830’s; general use after 1880s – Wikipedia Name from about 1913 Still in use, but now connected to a computer instead of a paper tape Chords represent phonetics (sound) of whole syllables, not the actual spellings “Cat” typed as a single press of initial K, the vowel A, and the final T

12.Alternate Text Entry for “Regular” Computers Not much Englebart’s chord keyset 1968 2^5 -1 = 31 values On-screen keyboards, mostly for handicapped people (see lecture 18 ) Also, non-English characters Handwriting or printing recognition on Rand tablet (1964 ) © 2014 - Brad Myers 12

13.Alternate Text Entry for “Regular” Computers Not much Englebart’s chord keyset 1968 2^5 -1 = 31 values On-screen keyboards, mostly for handicapped people (see lecture 18 ) Also, non-English characters Handwriting or printing recognition on Rand tablet (1964 ) © 2014 - Brad Myers 12

14.Auto Correct for Regular Computers Microsoft Word introduced two kinds of corrections Immediate changes based on a large list of replacements “Red squiggle underlines” introduced with Word 95 based on a dictionary Right click to get replacement list Word will auto-replace when just one option Both are entered into Undo stack so can be undone © 2014 - Brad Myers 14

15.Most research has been on text entry for portable devices Goals Reach typing speeds (~40 wpm) While still reasonably accurate Often, require little learning time But how much typing is needed? SMS = short message service = “texting” Versus writing a book or coding a program Entering an address or appointment correctly How much accuracy is needed? © 2014 - Brad Myers 15

16.Most research has been on text entry for portable devices Goals Reach typing speeds (~40 wpm) While still reasonably accurate Often, require little learning time But how much typing is needed? SMS = short message service = “texting” Versus writing a book or coding a program Entering an address or appointment correctly How much accuracy is needed? © 2014 - Brad Myers 15

17.Go Corp’s “ PenPoint ” OS Founded 1987, released in 1991 Hand printing for text entry Have to write carefully into the boxes User’s guide © 2014 - Brad Myers 17

18.Microsoft Pen Windows From: 1991 Version of Windows 3.1 for pen computing Added handwriting recognition Versions for Windows NT, Windows 95, etc. © 2014 - Brad Myers 18 Images: http://retrocosm.net/2012/01/ , http://www.betaarchive.com/imageupload/1298947809.or.94950.png

19.Apple Newton Started 1987, released 1993 Newton “ MessagePad ” Coined term “Personal Digital Assistant (PDA ) Handwriting recognition was main input technique Also soft keyboard or auto-complete User Manual © 2014 - Brad Myers 19 John Sculley III

20.Apple Newton Started 1987, released 1993 Newton “ MessagePad ” Coined term “Personal Digital Assistant (PDA ) Handwriting recognition was main input technique Also soft keyboard or auto-complete User Manual © 2014 - Brad Myers 19 John Sculley III

21.Digression Approximately 1919 Note the letters For “exchanges” 268- © 2014 - Brad Myers 21 http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Rotarydial.JPG

22.© 2014 - Brad Myers 22 Keypads for phones 1963 Dial much faster Letters the same as on the dial phone Numbers are opposite order from cash registers & numberpads Due to human factors research at Bell Labs Same speed, but preferred -- Wikipedia Retained for mobile phones

23.“Multi-Tap” Text entry using that keypad 2 = “A”, 22 = “B”, 222=“C” “BET” = 22338 But for “CAB” – 222(wait)2(wait)22 Layout was not optimized for letter frequencies Keystrokes per character (KSPC) for Multi-tap is 2.03 -- ( MacKenzie 2002b ) Measured at 10 to 12 WPM, up to 21.0 wpm for experts – ref © 2014 - Brad Myers 23

24.“T9” From Tegic , now part of Nuance Patented: filed in 1995 , issued 1998 Predictive text entry for phone keypad Just hit each key once Uses a language model to disambiguate Shows its best guess as you type video Use * key to get to other options Automatically adaptive so learns what you type most Also “smart punctuation” Measured at 15 wpm (novices) up to 40 wpm (vs. 10 up to 20 for multi-tap) 1.0072 KSPC © 2014 - Brad Myers 24

25.© 2014 - Brad Myers 25 Early phone + PDAs IBM Simon Shipped in 1994 by BellSouth Hand printing, on-screen keyboard with predictive text Nokia 9110 Communicator 1996 Added full physical keyboard Slow

26.Palm Founded by Jeff Hawkins who did GridPad First released version: 1996 = “Pilot” Graffiti or on-screen keyboard for data entry © 2014 - Brad Myers 26

27.Palm Graffiti Designed to be easier to learn Most look like the letter Still requires practice Two sides – numbers look the same as some letters Novices were faster with the keyboard (7 vs. 16 WPM ), but experts were faster with Graffiti (21 vs. 18 WPM ) -- [ Fleetwood , 2002] © 2014 - Brad Myers 27

28.Windows CE © 2014 - Brad Myers 28 CE 1.0 released in 1996 (same year as 1 st PalmPilot ) Many names: Windows Compact Edition (WinCE), Windows Palm PC, Windows Pocket PC (PPC), Windows Handheld PC (HPC), Windows Mobile HPC for landscape devices with a keyboard, PPC for portrait Compaq iPaq became very popular (2000 ) Graffiti equivalent = “Jot”

29.RIM Blackberry © 2014 - Brad Myers 29 Starting 1999 Research in Motion (RIM) Two-thumb keyboard Patents on having keys at angles Later, 2 characters on keys with the 7100 line in 2004 Two-thumb typing speeds are 30–35 WPM and reach 60 WPM after 20 twenty-minute sessions. -- [ Clarkson 2005]