08-1DataStructures---Iterators

The course is mainly about Iterators.Generally covered The Iterator Interface,Methods in the Iterator Interface,Using an Iterator with a HashSet Object, For-Each Loops as Iterators,The List Iterator Interface and so on.
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1. Iterators • An iterator is an object that is used with a collection to provide sequential access to the collection elements – This access allows examination and possible modification of the elements • An iterator imposes an ordering on the elements of a collection even if the collection itself does not impose any order on the elements it contains – If the collection does impose an ordering on its elements, then the iterator will use the same ordering Adapted from material by Walter Savitch

2. The Iterator<T> Interface • Java provides an Iterator<T> interface – Any object of any class that satisfies the Iterator<T> interface is an Iterator<T> • An Iterator<T> does not stand on its own – It must be associated with some collection object using the method iterator – If c is an instance of a collection class (e.g., HashSet<String>), the following obtains an iterator for c: Iterator iteratorForC = c.iterator(); Adapted from material by Walter Savitch

3.Methods in the Iterator<T> Interface (Part 1 of 2) Adapted from material by Walter Savitch

4.Methods in the Iterator<T> Interface (Part 2 of 2) Adapted from material by Walter Savitch

5. Using an Iterator with a HashSet<T> Object • A HashSet<T> object imposes no order on the elements it contains • However, an iterator will impose an order on the elements in the hash set – That is, the order in which they are produced by next() – Although the order of the elements so produced may be duplicated for each program run, there is no requirement that this must be the case Adapted from material by Walter Savitch

6.An Iterator (Part 1 of 3) Adapted from material by Walter Savitch

7.An Iterator (Part 2 of 3) Adapted from material by Walter Savitch

8.An Iterator (Part 3 of 3) Adapted from material by Walter Savitch

9. Tip: For-Each Loops as Iterators • Although it is not an iterator, a for-each loop can serve the same purpose as an iterator – A for-each loop can be used to cycle through each element in a collection • For-each loops can be used with any of the collections discussed here Adapted from material by Walter Savitch

10.For-Each Loops as Iterators (Part 1 of 2) Adapted from material by Walter Savitch

11.For-Each Loops as Iterators (Part 2 of 2) Adapted from material by Walter Savitch

12. The ListIterator<T> Interface • The ListIterator<T> interface extends the Iterator<T> interface, and is designed to work with collections that satisfy the List<T> interface – A ListIterator<T> has all the methods that an Iterator<T> has, plus additional methods – A ListIterator<T> can move in either direction along a list of elements – A ListIterator<T> has methods, such as set and add, that can be used to modify elements Adapted from material by Walter Savitch

13.Methods in the ListIterator<T> Interface (Part 1 of 4) Adapted from material by Walter Savitch

14.Methods in the ListIterator<T> Interface (Part 2 of 4) Adapted from material by Walter Savitch

15.Methods in the ListIterator<T> Interface (Part 3 of 4) Adapted from material by Walter Savitch

16.Methods in the ListIterator<T> Interface (Part 4 of 4) Adapted from material by Walter Savitch

17. The ListIterator<T> Cursor • Every ListIterator<T> has a position marker known as the cursor – If the list has n elements, they are numbered by indices 0 through n-1, but there are n+1 cursor positions – When next() is invoked, the element immediately following the cursor position is returned and the cursor is moved forward one cursor position – When previous() is invoked, the element immediately before the cursor position is returned and the cursor is moved back one cursor position Adapted from material by Walter Savitch

18.ListIterator<T> Cursor Positions Adapted from material by Walter Savitch

19. Pitfall: next and previous Can Return a Reference • Theoretically, when an iterator operation returns an element of the collection, it might return a copy or clone of the element, or it might return a reference to the element • Iterators for the standard predefined collection classes, such as ArrayList<T> and HashSet<T>, actually return references – Therefore, modifying the returned value will modify the element in the collection Adapted from material by Walter Savitch

20.An Iterator Returns a Reference (Part 1 of 4) Adapted from material by Walter Savitch

21.An Iterator Returns a Reference (Part 2 of 4) Adapted from material by Walter Savitch

22.An Iterator Returns a Reference (Part 3 of 4) Adapted from material by Walter Savitch

23.An Iterator Returns a Reference (Part 4 of 4) Adapted from material by Walter Savitch

24. Tip: Defining Your Own Iterator Classes • There is usually little need for a programmer defined Iterator<T> or ListIterator<T> class • The easiest and most common way to define a collection class is to make it a derived class of one of the library collection classes – By doing this, the iterator() and listIterator() methods automatically become available to the program • If a collection class must be defined in some other way, then an iterator class should be defined as an inner class of the collection class Adapted from material by Walter Savitch