02Data Structures--Operations on Arrays

The course is mainly about Operations on Arrays.Generally covered Example of Insertion sort,Inheritance, subclass,Advantages and Disadvantages of Lists,Linked List,ArrayList implements a Dynamic Array and so on.

1.Operations on Arrays Here is a partial list of some common operations: • Read A[i] • Get the length of A • Sort A in the ascending or descending order • Update A[i] to x • Delete A[i] Java.util methods for Arrays support some of the following operations equals (A, B) {When are two arrays equal?) fill (A, x) copyOf (A, n) (What if n ≠ A.length) toString(A) sort(A) binarySearch(A, x)  

2.class Test { public static void main (String[] args) { int arr1[] = {1, 2, 3}; int arr2[] = {1, 2, 3}; if (arr1 == arr2) // Same as arr1.equals(arr2) System.out.println("Same"); else System.out.println("Not same"); } } What should be the output?       import java.util.Arrays; class Test { public static void main (String[] args) { int arr1[] = {1, 2, 3}; int arr2[] = {1, 2, 3}; if (Arrays.equals(arr1, arr2)) System.out.println("Same"); else System.out.println("Not same"); } }   What should be the output?    

3.Strings (not arrays) are immutable String s1 = "Hi";   String s2 = s1; // s1 and s2 now point at the same string - "Hi" Now, you can do nothing to s1 that would affect the value of s2. They refer to the same object - the string "Hi" - but that object is immutable and thus cannot be altered. Hello s1 Hi s1 Hi s2 s2 Before After If we do something like this: s1 = "Hello!"; System.out.println(s2); // still prints "Hi"  

4.Example of Insertion sort   Algorithm InsertionSort(A) Input:       An  array  of  comparable  elements   Output:       The  array  with  elements  arranged  in  the  non-­‐decreasing  order   Main  idea:     for  k  from  1  to  (n-­‐1)  do     Insert  A[k]  at  its  proper  location  within  A[0],  A[1},  …,  A[n-­‐1]           Image source: “Introduction to Algorithms”, The MIT Press      

5.Things to observe After i iterations the first i elements are ordered. After each iteration, the next element bubbles through the sorted section until it reaches the right spot: sorted | unsorted 1358|46792 13458|6792 Pseudocode for insertion sort for i in 1 to n   for j in i downto 2 if array[j - 1] > array[j] then swap(array[j - 1], array[j]) else break What is the maximum number of swap operations?  

6.public static void insertionSort(int[] A){ int temp; for (int i = 1; i < A.length; i++) { for(int j = i ; j > 0 ; j--){ if(A[j] < A[j-1]){ temp = A[j]; A[j] = A[j-1]; A[j-1] = temp; } } } return A; }     Now,  use  java.util.Arrays to sort     import java.util.Arrays; public class HowToSortAnArray { public static void main(String[] args) { //Array of Integers int[] myIntArray = new int[]{31,108,69,4, 81}; //Sorts array in non-decreasing order Arrays.sort(myIntArray); //Loop to print Array values to console for (int i = 0; i < myIntArray.length; i++) { System.out.println(myIntArray[i]); } } }   Output: 4, 31, 69, 81, 108  

7.Inheritance     One class inherits the properties (methods and fields) of another class.              

8.Example 1 public class Calculation{ int z; public void addition(int x, int y){ z = x+y; System.out.println("The sum is:"+z); } public void Subtraction(int x, int y){ z = x-y; System.out.println("The difference is:"+z); } } public class My_Calculation extends Calculation{ public void multiplication(int x, int y){ z = x*y; System.out.println("The product is:"+z); } public static void main(String args[]){ int a = 20, b = 10; My_Calculation demo = new My_Calculation(); demo.addition(a, b); demo.Subtraction(a, b); demo.multiplication(a, b); } }  

9.Example 2 class Super_class{ int num = 20; //display method of superclass public void display(){ System.out.println("This is the display method of superclass"); } public class Sub_class extends Super_class { int num = 10; //display method of sub class public void display(){ System.out.println("This is the display method of subclass"); } public void my_method(){ //Instantiating subclass Sub_class sub = new Sub_class(); //Invoking the display() method of sub class sub.display(); //Invoking the display() method of superclass super.display(); //printing the value of variable num of subclass System.out.println("value of num in sub class:"+ sub.num); //printing the value of variable num of superclass System.out.println("value of num in super class:"+ super.num); } public static void main(String args[]){ Sub_class obj = new Sub_class(); obj.my_method(); } }  

10.Example 3   (Simple) progression 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 … Arithmetic progression 4, 9, 14, 19, 24 … 0, 3, 6, 9, 12,15… Geometric Progression 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, … 2, 20, 200, 2000, 20000, 200000, … The difference is how you compute the next value.  

11. 19   protected  void  advance  ()  {      20       current++   } Study how two other sub-classes: Arithmetic Progression and Geometric Progression can be created from this super-class.  

12. What can a subclass do 1. It can declare new fields 2. It can declare new methods 3. It can override old methods with new implementations class Base { int x = 100; } class Sup1 extends Base { int x = 200; void Show() { System.out.println(super.x); System.out.println(x); } public static void main(String[] args) { new Sup1().Show(); } } What is the output?  

13.Lists Consider the problem of storing a set of items, where the order is important (as in a phone directory, or student records at the university). How will you store them? Use an array? Advantages Know the index, and locate the item! Disadvantages 1. Insertion of a new item at the beginning or the middle of the takes time proportional to the length of the array. 2. Arrays, once declared, have a fixed length. To increase the length of the array, there is the overhead of copying the array. **(However, ArrayList facilitates this. More on this later.)** Linked list resolves the problem.  

14.Linked List Example of a recursive data type: public class ListNode { {int item; ListNode next; //recursive definition } // Construct three ListNodes ListNode n1 = new ListNode(); ListNode n2 = new ListNode(); ListNode n3 = new ListNode(); n1.item = 15; n2.item = 7; n3.item = 42; n1.next = n2; n2.next = null; n3.next = 42;  

15.Why is this a good idea? 1. Inserting an item takes “constant time.”  

16.2. Linked lists can grow in size as long as memory is available. Contrast this with the way an array grows. This is also called Singly Linked List. Why? The starting node is called the HEAD of the linked list. If the list is empty, then the head is null. The other end is the TAIL node. item item item item HEAD null next next next next A B C D Add  a  node  (N)  at  the  head  of  a  singly  linked  list   Newest  node    =  N   Newest.next  =  head   Head  =  newest  

17. item item item item HEAD null next next next next A B C D item next New node item item item item null next next next next A B C D item HEAD next New node How to locate the TAIL of the list? Start from the HEAD node, and reach a node with next=null by link hopping. Removing  the  HEAD:     HEAD  =  HEAD.next   If  HEAD  is  the  only  node,  then  the  list  becomes  empty.    

18.How will you remove the TAIL node? Start  from  the  HEAD  node;   Reach  the  TAIL  by  link  hopping;   Then  what?       To  remove  the  tail,  you  have  to  change  the  “next”  field  of  the   ListNode  “before  the  last  one”  to  null.  But  how  do  you  reach   there  from  the  tail?  Can  we  walk  backwards?        

19.ArrayList  implements  a  Dynamic  Array     import  java.util.*;       public  class  ArrayListDemo  {           public  static  void  main(String  args[])  {                   //  Create  an  array  list                   ArrayList  al  =  new  ArrayList();                   System.out.println("Initial  size  of  al:  "  +  al.size());                     //  Add  elements  to  the  array  list                   al.add("C");                   al.add("A");                   al.add("E");                   al.add("B");                   al.add("D");                   al.add("F");                   al.add(1,  "A2");                   System.out.println("Size  of  al  now:  "  +  al.size());                     //  Display  the  array  list                   System.out.println("Contents  of  al:  "  +  al);                   //  Remove  elements  from  the  array  list                   al.remove("F");                   al.remove(2);                   System.out.println("Size  after  deletions:  "  +  al.size());     System.out.println("Contents  of  al:  "  +  al);        }  }     Output     Initial size of al: 0 Size of al now: 7 Contents of al: [C, A2, A, E, B, D, F] Size after deletions: 5 Contents of al: [C, A2, E, B, D]