01 什么是P2P网络

主要介绍了什么是P2P网络、为什么要学习P2P网络、社交网络的定义与典型实例、电影《Six degrees of separation》、米尔格伦实验以及米尔格伦实验的缺陷、FaceBook平台、埃尔德什数、凯文·贝肯数。
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1.CS:4980:0001 Peer-to-Peer and Social Networks Fall 2017 Introduction

2.What is a P2P network Uses the vast resource of the machines at the edge of the Internet to build an overlay network that allows resource sharing and content delivery without any central authority . Client-Server vs. Peer-to-peer . A peer is both a client and a server. Control is decentralized.

3.Why study P2P Past uses . Sharing (*often pirated*) music or movie on the Internet Modern uses . P2P TV, VOIP Telephony (Skype) File sharing Digital currency - blockchain P2P Services (Uber, Lyft, AirBnB ) Content distribution ( Twitter and Facebook have their ( BitTorrent -like) content distribution mechanism).

4.Twitter Code distribution in Twitter

5.Social Network [Wikipedia definition] A social network is a social structure made up of a set of actors (such as individuals or organizations ) and the dyadic ties between these actors. The social network perspective provides a clear way of analyzing the structure of whole social entities.

6.Social networks This graph can represent various things. For example, Each node is a friend and each edge is a friendship relation Each node is an airport and each edge is an air route Each node is power generating station, and each edge is a high voltage link connecting a pair of generating stations Abstract representation is a graph G=(V,E)

7.Example of networks Biological networks Protein –protein interactions networks Predator-prey networks Technological networks Power grid Telephone network Internet Classical Social networks Intermarriage network among ruling families in Florence Friendship among school children Information networks WWW graphs P2P networks Co-authorship network Citations network Modern social networks Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Other useful networks Transportation networks

8.Example of networks Food web at Little Rock Lake (Credit: Mark Newman) The Internet Source: http://www.cheswick.com/ches/map/gallery/index.html

9.Social networks Social networks existed from the dawn of civilization, much before Facebook or Twitter were created  . Facebook or Twitter only established an electronic platform to facilitate socialization . In contrast, peer-to-peer networks are a much more recent invention primarily aimed at content sharing and content distribution, often without the assistance of a central server .

10.Six degrees of separation Six Degrees of Separation is a 1993 American film. ( 1929 ) Frigyes Karinthy , a novelist in of Budapest wrote a book that contained a story called “Chains.” A character in this story suggested that he could link to any other inhabitant in the world through a chain of five acquaintances. ( 1967 ) Stanley Milgram conducted an experiment that validated this.

11.Six degrees of separation Six Degrees of Separation is a 1993 American film. ( 1929 ) Frigyes Karinthy , a novelist in of Budapest wrote a book that contained a story called “Chains.” A character in this story suggested that he could link to any other inhabitant in the world through a chain of five acquaintances. ( 1967 ) Stanley Milgram conducted an experiment that validated this.

12.Milgram’s experiment Taken from Kleinberg’s book 64 of the 160 envelopes reached the target person. The median length of the chain was six

13.Shortcomings of Milgram’s experiment There were several shortcomings of this experiment. Many envelopes did not reach the target person. The sample size were too small There was not much flexibility in the choice of the source and the target Should we still believe these results?

14.Shortcomings of Milgram’s experiment There were several shortcomings of this experiment. Many envelopes did not reach the target person. The sample size were too small There was not much flexibility in the choice of the source and the target Should we still believe these results?

15.Erdős number ErdősNumber ( Erdős ) = 0 If X is the coauthor of at least one paper with a person whose Erdős number is n , then Erdős number of X = n+1. These numbers are surprisingly small. Albert Einstein’s Erdős Number is 2 Sriram Pemmaraju’s Erdős Number is 2 Sukumar Ghosh’s Erdős Number is 3 Co-authorship network

16.Kevin Bacon number Refers to distance measures in the co-actor network (available from Internet Movie Database IMDb ) Similar to Erdős number but applies to movie actors . Actor Kevin Bacon’s number is 0 by definition. Anyone who has acted in a film with an actor whose Kevin Bacon number is has a Kevin Bacon number of IMDb database has more than 200,000 actors and actresses, but the Kevin Bacon numbers for them are surprisingly small.

17.Important questions How does a social network evolve? What are their structural properties? What properties are relevant or worth studying? Why are the degrees of separation so small? How can we use some of these structural properties? What are some of the important issues in social networks?