电子学导论

本文主要讲述探索电子学的历史,描述电子信号的分类以及介绍公差影响及分析。本课程的主题是现代电子学和微电子学。
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1.Topic 1 Introduction to Electronics ECE 271 Electronic Circuits I NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 1 - 1

2.Topic Goals Explore the history of electronics. Describe classification of electronic signals. Introduce tolerance impacts and analysis. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 1 - 2

3.1. The Subject of the Course The subject of the course is modern electronics, or microelectronics. Microelectronics refers to the integrated-circuit (IC) technology IC – can contains hundreds of millions of components on a IC chip with the area of the order 100 sq. mm. Subject of study: - electronic components/devices that can be used singly (discrete circuits) - electronic components/devices that can be used as components of the IC NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 1 - 3

4.2. Brief History NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 1 - 4 Bardeen, Shockley, and Brattain at Bell Labs - Brattain and Bardeen invented the bipolar transistor in 1947. The first germanium bipolar transistor. Roughly 50 years later, electronics account for 10% (4 trillion dollars) of the world GDP. It can be said that the invention of the transistor and the subsequent development of the microelectronics have done more to shape the modern era than any other invention. The Start of the Modern Electronics Era

5.Electronics Milestones Braun invents the solid-state rectifier ( using point contact based on lead sulphide ) DeForest invents triode vacuum tube. 1907-1927 First radio circuits developed from diodes and triodes. 1925 Lilienfeld field-effect device patent filed. Bardeen and Brattain at Bell Laboratories invent bipolar transistors. Commercial bipolar transistor production at Texas Instruments. Bardeen, Brattain, and Shockley receive Nobel prize. Integrated circuits developed by Kilby (TI) and Noyce and Moore (Fairchild Semiconductor) First commercial IC from Fairchild Semiconductor IEEE formed from merger of IRE and AIEE First commercial IC opamp One transistor DRAM cell invented by Dennard at IBM. 4004 Intel microprocessor introduced. First commercial 1-kilobit memory. 1974 8080 microprocessor introduced. Megabit memory chip introduced. 1995 Gigabite memory chip presented. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 1 - 5

6.Evolution of Electronic Devices NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 1 - 6 Vacuum Tubes Discrete Transistors SSI and MSI Integrated Circuits VLSI Surface-Mount Circuits

7.Evolution of Electronic Devices NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 1 - 7 A work of art from the Museum of Modern Art, Paris

8.Microelectronics Proliferation The integrated circuit was invented in 1958. World transistor production has more than doubled every year for the past twenty years . NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 1 - 8

9.Microelectronics Proliferation The integrated circuit was invented in 1958. World transistor production has more than doubled every year for the past twenty years. Every year, more transistors are produced than in all previous years combined. Approximately 10 18 transistors were produced in a recent year. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 1 - 9

10.Microelectronics Proliferation The integrated circuit was invented in 1958. World transistor production has more than doubled every year for the past twenty years. Every year, more transistors are produced than in all previous years combined. Approximately 10 18 transistors were produced in a recent year. To compare: Number of cells in a human body - NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 1 - 10

11.Microelectronics Proliferation The integrated circuit was invented in 1958. World transistor production has more than doubled every year for the past twenty years. Every year, more transistors are produced than in all previous years combined. Approximately 10 18 transistors were produced in a recent year. To compare: Number of cells in a human body - 10 14 NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 1 - 11

12.Microelectronics Proliferation The integrated circuit was invented in 1958. World transistor production has more than doubled every year for the past twenty years. Every year, more transistors are produced than in all previous years combined. Approximately 10 18 transistors were produced in a recent year. To compare: Number of cells in a human body - 10 14 Number of seconds elapsed since Big Bang – NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 1 - 12

13.Microelectronics Proliferation The integrated circuit was invented in 1958. World transistor production has more than doubled every year for the past twenty years. Every year, more transistors are produced than in all previous years combined. Approximately 10 18 transistors were produced in a recent year. To compare: Number of cells in a human body - 10 14 Number of seconds elapsed since Big Bang – 10 17 NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 1 - 13

14.Microelectronics Proliferation The integrated circuit was invented in 1958. World transistor production has more than doubled every year for the past twenty years. Every year, more transistors are produced than in all previous years combined. Approximately 10 18 transistors were produced in a recent year. To compare: Number of cells in a human body - 10 14 Number of seconds elapsed since Big Bang – 10 17 Number of ants in the world - NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 1 - 14

15.Microelectronics Proliferation The integrated circuit was invented in 1958. World transistor production has more than doubled every year for the past twenty years. Every year, more transistors are produced than in all previous years combined. Approximately 10 18 transistors were produced in a recent year. To compare: Number of cells in a human body - 10 14 Number of seconds elapsed since Big Bang – 10 17 Number of ants in the world - roughly 50 transistors for every ant in the world. * Source: Gordon Moore’s Plenary address at the 2003 International Solid State Circuits Conference. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 1 - 15

16.Rapid Increase in Density of Microelectronics NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 1 - 16 Memory chip density versus time. Microprocessor complexity versus time.

17.Device Feature Size Feature size reductions enabled by process innovations. Smaller features lead to more transistors per unit area and therefore higher density. SSI – small scale integration (< 10 2 ) MSI – medium SI (10 2- 10 3 ) LSI – large SI (10 3- 10 4 ) VLSI – very large SI (10 4- 10 9 ) ULSI & GSI– ultra large SI & giga-scale integration (> 10 9 ) NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 1 - 17

18.3. Types of Signals Analog signals take on continuous values - typically current or voltage. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 1 - 18

19.3. Types of Signals Analog signals take on continuous values - typically current or voltage. Digital signals appear at discrete levels (do not confuse with discrete times). NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 1 - 19

20.3. Types of Signals Analog signals take on continuous values - typically current or voltage. Digital signals appear at discrete levels (do not confuse with discrete times). Usually we use binary signals with only two levels - One level is referred to as logical 1 and logical 0 is assigned to the other level. Typically: - was standard for many years - used now. Bipolar levels also exist NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 1 - 20

21.Analog and Digital Signals Analog signals usually are continuous in time and in values. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 1 - 21 Analog signal

22.Analog and Digital Signals Analog signals usually are continuous in time and in values. Sampled, discrete time signals are discrete in time (values are typically separated by fixed time intervals). The values are continuous . Needs digitization. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 1 - 22 Analog signal Discrete time signal

23.Analog and Digital Signals Sampled discrete time signal NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 1 - 23

24.Analog and Digital Signals Sampled discrete time signal Digitized discrete time signal - discrete time and digitized discrete values. The values are not continuous – belong to a finite set. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 1 - 24

25.Analog and Digital Signals Sampled discrete time signal Digitized discrete time signal - discrete time and digitized discrete values. The values are not continuous – belong to a finite set. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 1 - 25

26.Analog and Digital Signals Sampled discrete time signal Digitized discrete time signal - discrete time and digitized discrete values. The values are not continuous – belong to a finite set. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 1 - 26

27.Digital-to-Analog (D/A) Conversion NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 1 - 27 The input is a binary number Let’s introduce and then define

28.Digital-to-Analog (D/A) Conversion The least significant bit (LSB) - the smallest possible binary number (smallest voltage change) is known as resolution of the converter. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 1 - 28 The input is a binary number Let’s introduce and then define

29.Digital-to-Analog (D/A) Conversion The least significant bit (LSB) - the smallest possible binary number (smallest voltage change) is known as resolution of the converter. The most significant bit (MSB) - NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 1 - 29 The input is a binary number Let’s introduce and then define ?