电荷耦合器件

电荷耦合器件的技术运用。电荷耦合器件(charge-coupled device,CCD)是一种用于探测光的硅片,由时钟脉冲电压来产生和控制半导体势阱的变化,实现存储和传递电荷信息的固态电子器件。它由一组规则排列的金属-氧化物-半导体( MOS)电容器阵列和输入、输出电路组成。电荷耦合器件用电荷量来表示不同状态的动态移位寄存器,比传统的底片更能敏感的探测到光的变化。
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1. Lecture #30 ANNOUNCEMENT • Review Session: Thu. May 15, 2-5 PM, 277 Cory OUTLINE • Charge coupled devices Spring 2003 EE130 Lecture 30, Slide 1 Memory Organization • Some address bits are used by row decoder to select one word line • Information in storage cells along that word line is passed to the column decoder • Decoder selects bits (according to the remaining address bits) to be presented at the output Spring 2003 EE130 Lecture 30, Slide 2 1

2. Storage of Charge Beneath MOS Gate Spring 2003 EE130 Lecture 30, Slide 3 Transfer of Charge Between MOS Gates Spring 2003 EE130 Lecture 30, Slide 4 2

3. Charge Coupled Device • Array of closely-spaced MOS capacitors – Transfer of stored inversion charge along surface, into the device output, under proper control of gate biases • Applications include memory, signal processing, imaging Spring 2003 EE130 Lecture 30, Slide 5 CCD Imager 1. Entire CCD array is biased into deep depletion, then exposed to a focused image for a time interval 2. Channel under each gate (“pixel”) becomes charged to a level corresponding to the brightness at that location 3. Stored charge (analog signal) is clocked out to sense amplifiers at the edges of the CCD array Spring 2003 EE130 Lecture 30, Slide 6 3