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1.Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) Shannon Quinn (with thanks to William Cohen of Carnegie Mellon University and Arvind Ramanathan of Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

2.Processing Natural Language Text Collection of documents Each document consists of a set of word tokens, from a set of word types The big dog ate the small dog Goal of Processing Natural Language Text Construct models of the domain via unsupervised learning “Learn the structure of the domain”

3.Structure of a Domain: What does it mean? Obtain a compact representation of each document Obtain a generative model that produces observed documents with high probability others with low probability!

4.Generative Models Topic 1 Topic 2 loan loan bank bank river river stream bank DOCUMENT 2: river 2 stream 2 bank 2 stream 2 bank 2 money 1 loan 1 river 2 stream 2 loan 1 bank 2 river 2 bank 2 bank 1 stream 2 river 2 loan 1 bank 2 stream 2 bank 2 money 1 loan 1 river 2 stream 2 bank 2 stream 2 bank 2 money 1 river 2 stream 2 loan 1 bank 2 river 2 bank 2 money 1 bank 1 stream 2 river 2 bank 2 stream 2 bank 2 money 1 DOCUMENT 1: money 1 bank 1 bank 1 loan 1 river 2 stream 2 bank 1 money 1 river 2 bank 1 money 1 bank 1 loan 1 money 1 stream 2 bank 1 money 1 bank 1 bank 1 loan 1 river 2 stream 2 bank 1 money 1 river 2 bank 1 money 1 bank 1 loan 1 bank 1 money 1 stream 2 .3 .8 .2 .7 Dennis, and W. Kintsch ( eds ), Latent Semantic Analysis: A Road to Meaning. Laurence Steyvers , M. & Griffiths, T. (2006). Probabilistic topic models. In T. Landauer , D McNamara, S.

5.The inference problem Topic 1 Topic 2 DOCUMENT 2: river ? stream ? bank ? stream ? bank ? money ? loan ? river ? stream ? loan ? bank ? river ? bank ? bank ? stream ? river ? loan ? bank ? stream ? bank ? money ? loan ? river ? stream ? bank ? stream ? bank ? money ? river ? stream ? loan ? bank ? river ? bank ? money ? bank ? stream ? river ? bank ? stream ? bank ? money ? DOCUMENT 1: money ? bank ? bank ? loan ? river ? stream ? bank ? money ? river ? bank ? money ? bank ? loan ? money ? stream ? bank ? money ? bank ? bank ? loan ? river ? stream ? bank ? money ? river ? bank ? money ? bank ? loan ? bank ? money ? stream ? ?

6.Obtaining a compact representation: LSA Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) Mathematical model Somewhat hacky! Topic Model with LDA Principled Probabilistic model Additional embellishments possible!

7.Set up for LDA: Co-occurrence matrix D documents W (distinct) words F = W x D matrix f wd = frequency of word w in document d w 1 w 2 w W … d 1 d 2 d D … … … f wd

8.LSA: Transforming the Co-occurrence matrix Compute the relative entropy of a word across documents: Are terms document specific? Occurrence reveals something specific about the document itself Hw = 0 word occurs in only one document Hw = 1 word occurs across all documents P( d|w ) [0, 1]

9.Transforming the Co-occurrence matrix G = W x D [normalized Co-occurrence matrix] (1-Hw) is a measure of specificity: 0 word tells you nothing about the document 1 word tells you something specific about the document G = weighted matrix (with specificity) High dimensional Does not capture similarity across documents

10.What do you do after constructing G? G (W x D) = U (W x r) Σ (r x r) V T (r x D) Singular Value decomposition if r = min(W,D) reconstruction is perfect if r < min(W, D), capture whatever structure there is in matrix with a reduced number of parameters Reduced representation of word i : row i of matrix UΣ Reduced representation of document j: column j of matrix ΣV T

11.Some issues with LSA Finding optimal dimension for semantic space precision-recall improve as dimension is increased until hits optimal, then slowly decreases until it hits standard vector model run SVD once with big dimension, say k = 1000 then can test dimensions <= k in many tasks 150-350 works well, still room for research SVD assumes normally distributed data term occurrence is not normally distributed matrix entries are weights, not counts, which may be normally distributed even when counts are not

12.Intuition to why LSA is not such a good idea… Topics are most often generated by “mixtures” of topics Not great at “finding documents that come from a similar topic” Topics and words can change over time! Difficult to create a generative model Topic 1 Topic 2 loan loan bank bank river river stream bank DOCUMENT 2: river 2 stream 2 bank 2 stream 2 bank 2 money 1 loan 1 river 2 stream 2 loan 1 bank 2 river 2 bank 2 bank 1 stream 2 river 2 loan 1 bank 2 stream 2 bank 2 money 1 loan 1 river 2 stream 2 bank 2 stream 2 bank 2 money 1 river 2 stream 2 loan 1 bank 2 river 2 bank 2 money 1 bank 1 stream 2 river 2 bank 2 stream 2 bank 2 money 1 DOCUMENT 1: money 1 bank 1 bank 1 loan 1 river 2 stream 2 bank 1 money 1 river 2 bank 1 money 1 bank 1 loan 1 money 1 stream 2 bank 1 money 1 bank 1 bank 1 loan 1 river 2 stream 2 bank 1 money 1 river 2 bank 1 money 1 bank 1 loan 1 bank 1 money 1 stream 2 .3 .8 .2 .7

13.Topic models Motivating questions: What are the topics that a document is about? Given one document, can we find similar documents about the same topic? How do topics in a field change over time? We will use a Hierarchical Bayesian Approach Assume that each document defines a distribution over (hidden) topics Assume each topic defines a distribution over words The posterior probability of these latent variables given a document collection determines a hidden decomposition of the collection into topics.

14.http:// dl.acm.org / citation.cfm?id =944937

15.LDA Motivation w M N Assumptions: 1) documents are i.i.d 2) within a document, words are i.i.d. (bag of words) For each document d = 1, ,M Generate d ~ D 1 (…) For each word n = 1, , N d generate w n ~ D 2 ( ¢ | θ d n ) Now pick your favorite distributions for D 1 , D 2

16.LDA z w M N a Randomly initialize each z m,n Repeat for t=1,…. For each doc m, word n Find Pr( z mn = k |other z’s) Sample z mn according to that distr. “Mixed membership” (k) 30? 100?

17.LDA z w M N a For each document d = 1, ,M Generate d ~ Dir( ¢ | ) For each position n = 1, , N d generate z n ~ Mult( . | d ) generate w n ~ Mult( . | z n ) “Mixed membership” K

18.How an LDA document looks

19.LDA topics

20.The intuitions behind LDA http:// www.cs.princeton.edu /~ blei /papers/Blei2011.pdf

21.Let’s set up a generative model… We have D documents Vocabulary of V word types Each document contains up to N word tokens Assume K topics Each document has a K-dimensional multinomial θ d over topics with a common Dirichlet prior, Dir (α) Each topic has a V-dimensional multinomial β k over with a common symmetric Dirichlet prior, D( η )

22.What is a Dirichlet distribution? Remember we called a multinomial distribution for both topic and word distributions? The space is of all of these multinomials has a nice geometric interpretation as a (k-1)-simplex, which is just a generalization of a triangle to (k-1) dimensions. Criteria for selecting our prior: It needs to be defined for a (k-1)-simplex. Algebraically speaking, we would like it to play nice with the multinomial distribution.

23.More on Dirichlet Distributions Useful Facts: This distribution is defined over a (k-1)-simplex. That is, it takes k non-negative arguments which sum to one. Consequently it is a natural distribution to use over multinomial distributions. In fact, the Dirichlet distribution is the conjugate prior to the multinomial distribution. (This means that if our likelihood is multinomial with a Dirichlet prior, then the posterior is also Dirichlet !) The Dirichlet parameter i can be thought of as a prior count of the i th class.

24.More on Dirichlet Distributions

25.Dirichlet Distribution

26.Dirichlet Distribution

27.How does the generative process look like? For each topic 1…k: Draw a multinomial over words β k ~ Dir ( η ) For each document 1…d: Draw multinomial over topics θ d ~ Dir (α) For each word w dn : Draw a topic Z dn ~ Mult ( θ d ) with Z dn from [1…k] Draw a word w dn ~ Mult (β Zdn )

28.The LDA Model z 4 z 3 z 2 z 1 w 4 w 3 w 2 w 1 b z 4 z 3 z 2 z 1 w 4 w 3 w 2 w 1 z 4 z 3 z 2 z 1 w 4 w 3 w 2 w 1

29.What is the posterior of the hidden variables given the observed variables (and hyper-parameters)? Problem: the integral in the denominator is intractable! Solution: Approximate inference Gibbs Sampling [Griffith and Steyvers ] Variational inference [ Blei , Ng, Jordan ]

30.LDA Parameter Estimation Variational EM Numerical approximation using lower-bounds Results in biased solutions Convergence has numerical guarantees Gibbs Sampling Stochastic simulation unbiased solutions Stochastic convergence

31.Gibbs Sampling Represent corpus as an array of words w[ i ], document indices d[ i ] and topics z[ i ] Words and documents are fixed: Only topics z[ i ] will change States of Markov chain = topic assignments to words. “ Macrosteps ”: assign a new topic to all of the words “ Microsteps ”: assign a new topic to each word w[ i ].

32.LDA Parameter Estimation Gibbs sampling Applicable when joint distribution is hard to evaluate but conditional distribution is known Sequence of samples comprises a Markov Chain Stationary distribution of the chain is the joint distribution Key capability: estimate distribution of one latent variables given the other latent variables and observed variables.

33.Assigning a new topic to w i The probability is proportional to the probability of w i under topic j times the probability of topic j given document d i Define as the frequency of w i labeled as topic j Define as the number of words in d i labeled as topic j Prob of wi under topic zi Prob of topic zi in document di

34.What other quantities do we need? W e want to compute the expected value of the parameters given the observed data . Our data is the set of words w{1:D,1:N} Hence we need to compute E[…|w{1:D,1:N }

35.Running LDA with the Gibbs sampler A toy example from Griffiths, T., & Steyvers , M. (2004): 25 words. 10 predefined topics 2000 documents generated according to known distributions. Each document = 5x5 image. Pixel intensity = Frequency of word.

36.(a) Graphical representation of 10 topics, combined to produce “ documents ” like those shown in b, where each image is the result of 100 samples from a unique mixture of these topics. Thomas L. Griffiths, and Mark Steyvers PNAS 2004;101:5228-5235

37.How does it converge?

38.What do we discover? (Upper) Mean values of θ at each of the diagnostic topics for all 33 PNAS minor categories, computed by using all abstracts published in 2001. Provides an intuitive representation of how topics and words are associated with each other Meaningful associations Cross interactions across disciplines!

39.Why does Gibbs sampling work? What’s the fixed point? Stationary distribution of the chain is the joint distribution When will it converge (in the limit)? Graph defined by the chain is connected How long will it take to converge? Depends on second eigenvector of that graph

40.Observation How much does the choice of z depend on the other z’s in the same document? quite a lot How much does the choice of z depend on the other z’s in elsewhere in the corpus? maybe not so much depends on Pr ( w|t ) but that changes slowly Can we parallelize Gibbs and still get good results?

41.Question Can we parallelize Gibbs sampling? formally, no: every choice of z depends on all the other z’s Gibbs needs to be sequential just like SGD

42.Discussion…. Where do you spend your time? sampling the z ’s each sampling step involves a loop over all topics this seems wasteful even with many topics, words are often only assigned to a few different topics low frequency words appear < K times … and there are lots and lots of them! even frequent words are not in every topic

43.Variational Inference Alternative to Gibbs sampling Clearer convergence criteria Easier to parallelize (!)

44.Results

45.Results

46.Results

47.

48.LDA Implementations Yahoo_LDA NOT Hadoop Custom MPI for synchronizing global counts Mahout LDA Hadoop -based Lacks some mature features Mr. LDA Hadoop -based https:// github.com / lintool / Mr.LDA

49.JMLR 2009

50.JMLR 2009

51.KDD 09

52.originally - PSK MLG 2009

53.Assignment 4! Out on Thursday! LDA on Spark Yes, Spark 1.3 includes an experimental LDA Yes, you have to implement your own Yes, you can use the Spark version to help you (as long as you cite it, as with any external source of assistance…and as long as your code isn’t identical)