Analyzing 2TB of Raw Trace Data from a Manufacturing Process: A First Use Case

As the development of semiconductor devices, manufacturing system leads to improve productivity and efficiency for wafer fabrication. Owing to such improvement, the number of wafers yielded from the fabrication process has been rapidly increasing. However, current software systems for semiconductor wafers are not aimed at processing large number of wafers. To resolve this issue, the BISTel (a world-class provider of manufacturing intelligence solutions and services for manufacturers) tries to build several products for big data such as Trace Analyzer (TA) and Map Analyzer (MA) using Apache Spark. TA is to analyze raw trace data from a manufacturing process. It captures details on all variable changes, big and small and give the traces’ statistical summary (i.e.: min, max, slope, average, etc.). Several BISTel’s customers, which are the top-tier semiconductor company in the world use the TA to analyze the massive raw trace data from their manufacturing process. Especially, TA is able to manage terabytes of data by applying Apache Spark’s APIs. MA is an advanced pattern recognition tool that sorts wafer yield maps and automatically identify common yield loss patterns. Also, some semiconductor companies use MA to identify clustering patterns for more than 100,000 wafers, which can be considered as big data in the semiconductor area. This talk will introduce these two products which are developed based on the Apache Spark and present how to handle the large-scale semiconductor data in the aspects of software techniques.
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1.Analyzing 2TB of Raw Trace Data from a Manufacturing Process: A First Use Case of Apache Spark for Semiconductor Wafers from Real Industry Seungchul Lee, sclee@bistel.com BISTel Inc. Daeyoung Kim, dykim3@bistel.com BISTel Inc. #UnifiedAnalytics #SparkAISummit

2.Contents • Introduction to BISTel – BISTel’s business and solutions – Big Data for BISTel’s smart manufacturing • Use cases of Apache Spark in manufacturing industry – Trace Analyzer (TA) – Map Analyzer (MA) #UnifiedAnalytics #SparkAISummit 2

3.Introduction to BISTel #UnifiedAnalytics #SparkAISummit 3

4.BISTel’s business areas • Providing analytic solutions based on Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Big Data to the customers for Smart Factory #UnifiedAnalytics #SparkAISummit 4

5.BISTel’s solution areas • World-Class Manufacturing Intelligence through innovation #UnifiedAnalytics #SparkAISummit 5

6.BISTel’s analytic solution: eDataLyzer #UnifiedAnalytics #SparkAISummit 6

7.BISTel’s analytic solutions (MA) • Map Pattern Clustering – Automatically detect and classify map patterns with/without libraries – Process thousands of wafers and give results in few minutes Clustered Defective wafers #UnifiedAnalytics #SparkAISummit 7

8.BISTel’s analytic solutions (TA) • Specialized Application for Trace Raw Data – Extracts the vital signs out of equipment trace data – Provide in-depth analysis which traditional methods cannot reach Normal Abnormal #UnifiedAnalytics #SparkAISummit 8

9.BISTel’s big data experiences #UnifiedAnalytics #SparkAISummit 9

10.BISTel’s big data experiences - YMA Test using Spark - - Big data platforms comparison- #UnifiedAnalytics #SparkAISummit 10

11.Trace Analyzer (TA) #UnifiedAnalytics #SparkAISummit 11

12.Trace Data • Trace Data is sensor data collected from processing equipment within a semiconductor fab during a process run. - Wafer - - Semiconductor industry - #UnifiedAnalytics #SparkAISummit 12

13. Logical Hierarchy of the trace data wafer Wafer Lot Visualization Whole process Recipe Step Recipe Process Recipe 1 Process #UnifiedAnalytics #SparkAISummit 13

14. An example of the trace data Process Recipe Recipe step Lot Wafer Param1 Param2 Time 2015-01-20 021_LIT RecipeA 1 1501001 1 32.5 45.4 09:00:00 #UnifiedAnalytics #SparkAISummit 14

15.Data attributes • Base unit : one process and one parameters • 1000 wafers • Each wafer has 1000~2000 data points in a recipe step • Some factors that make trace data huge volume • # of parameters • # of processes • # of wafers • # of recipe steps • duration of the recipe step #UnifiedAnalytics #SparkAISummit 15

16.An example of the trace data – (2) Parameter # of # of Avg. Recipe Data # of No. Fab per unit processes recipe steps Process Time Frequency units (max) 1 Array 109 10 16 mins 1Hz 288 185 2 CF 25 5 1min 1Hz 154 340 3 CELL 12 7 1min 1Hz 213 326 4 MDL 5 12 2mins 1Hz 32 154 • Some calculations • For one process, one parameter and one wafer • 16 * 10 * 60 sec * 1Hz = 9600 points • Multi parameters, multi processes and multi wafers • 9600 * 288 *185 * 109 * (# of wafers) #UnifiedAnalytics #SparkAISummit 16

17.Spark : Smart manufacturing • Spark is a best way to process big data in batch analytics • Distributing data based on parameter is suitable for using Apache Spark. • Easy deployment and scalability when it comes to providing the solutions to our customers #UnifiedAnalytics #SparkAISummit 17

18.Naïve way: applying spark to TA #UnifiedAnalytics #SparkAISummit 18

19.How to apply Spark to TA? traceDataSet = config.getTraceRDDs().mapToPair(t->{ String recipeStepKey = TAUtil.getRecipeStepKey(t); #use recipe step as key return new Tuple2<String,String>(recipeStepKey,t); }).groupByKey(); traceDataSet.flatMap(t->{ Map<String,TraceDataSet> alltraceData = TAUtil.getTraceDataSet(t); ... TAUtil.seperateFocusNonFocus(alltraceData,focus,nonFocus); #separate data ta.runTraceAnalytic(focus,nonFocus,config); # calling the TA core ... });

20.Most cases in manufacturing industry • In real industry, most parameters have small number of data points. (Most case : 1Hz) • In addition, the number of wafers to be analyzed is not massive. (up to 1,000 wafers) • Therefore the total number of data points in a process can be easily processed in a core

21.Issues in manufacturing industry • Last year, I have got an email indicating that.. #UnifiedAnalytics #SparkAISummit 21

22.Big parameter • Tools with high frequency or high recipe time can produce huge volume for single parameter • Requirements in industry • For one parameter • 400,000 wafers • 20,000 data points. #UnifiedAnalytics #SparkAISummit 22

23.Limitations of the Naïve TA traceDataSet = config.getTraceRDDs().mapToPair(t->{ String recipeStepKey = TAUtil.getRecipeStepKey(t); #use recipe step as key All the data points based return new Tuple2<String,String>(recipeStepKey,t); }).groupByKey(); on the key are pushed into one core by shuffling For(Tuple<String,Iterable<String> recipeTrace : allTraceData){ TraceDataSet ftds = new TraceDataSet(); Iterable<String> oneRecipe = recipeTrace._2(); for(String tr : oneRecipe){ TraceData td = TAUtil.convertToTraceData(tr); ftds.add(td); } Java object holds too } many data points #UnifiedAnalytics #SparkAISummit 23

24.Needs for new TA spark • Naïve TA Spark version cannot process massive data points. • Nowadays, new technology enhancements enable data capture at much higher frequencies. • TA for “big parameter” version is necessary. #UnifiedAnalytics #SparkAISummit 24

25.Our idea is that.. • Extracting the TA core logic – Batch mode – Key-based processing – Using .collect() to broadcast variables – Caching the object #UnifiedAnalytics #SparkAISummit 25

26.Batch First element : process, recipe step, parameter and batch ID • Preprocessing trace data Second element : lot, wafer and trace values JavaPairRDD<String, List<String>> traceDataRDD = TAImpl.generateBatch(traceData) • Key-based processing Summary • Base unit : process key or recipe step key statistics . . . •Param A #UnifiedAnalytics #SparkAISummit 26

27.Collect() : TA Cleaner • Filtering out traces that have unusual duration of process time. • Use the three main Spark APIs – mapToPair : extract relevant information – reduceByKey : aggregating values based on the key – collect : send the data to the driver #UnifiedAnalytics #SparkAISummit 27

28.Collect() : TA Cleaner – (2) • traceData.mapToPair() • Return • key : process • value : wafer and its length Worker Worker Worker Worker wafer value wafer value wafer value wafer value 1 65 1 83 1 34 1 71 2 54 2 54 2 77 2 80 … … … … … … … … #UnifiedAnalytics #SparkAISummit 28

29.Collect() : TA Cleaner – (3) • reduceByKey() • Aggregating contexts into one based on the process key wafer value wafer value 1 65 1 88 2 54 2 92 … … … … wafer value Shuffling 1 153 2 146 … … #UnifiedAnalytics #SparkAISummit 29