OpenTSDB

OpenTSDBOpenTSDB
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1.2.4 and 3.0 Update

2. Who Am I? Chris Larsen ● Maintainer and author for OpenTSDB since 2013 ● Software Engineer @ Yahoo ● Central Monitoring Team Who I’m not: ● A marketer ● A sales person 2

3.What Is OpenTSDB? ● Open Source Time Series Database ● Scales to 10s of millions of writes per second ● Sucks up all data and keeps going ● Never lose precision (if you have space) ● Scales using HBase or Bigtable

4. What are Time Series? ● Time Series: A sequence of discrete data points (values) ordered and indexed by time associated with an identity. E.g.: web01.sys.cpu.busy.pct 45% 1/1/207 12:01:00 web01.sys.cpu.busy.pct 52% 1/1/207 12:02:00 web01.sys.cpu.busy.pct 35% 1/1/207 12:03:00 ^ Identity ^ Value ^ Timestamp 4

5. What are Time Series? 5

6. What are Time Series? Data Point: ● Metric + Tags ● + Value: 42 ● + Timestamp: 1234567890 ^ a data point ^ sys.cpu.user 1234567890 42 host=web01 cpu=0 ● Payload could also be a string, a blob, a histogram, etc. 6

7. What are HBase and Bigtable? ● HBase is an OSS distributed LSM backed hash table based on Google’s Bigtable. ● Key value, row based column store. ● Sorted by row, columns and cell versions. ● Supports: ○ Scans across rows with filters. ○ Get specific row and/or columns. ○ Atomic operations. ● CP from CAP theorem. 7

8. OpenTSDB Schema ● Row key is a concatenation of UIDs and time: ○ salt + metric + timestamp + tagk1 + tagv1… + tagkN + tagvN ● sys.cpu.user 1234567890 42 host=web01 cpu=0 \x01\x00\x00\x01\x49\x95\xFB\x70\x00\x00\x01\x00\x00\x01\x00\x00\x02\x00\x00\x02 ● Timestamp normalized on hour or daily boundaries. ● All data points for an hour or day are stored in one row. ● Data: VLE 64 bit signed integers or single/double precision signed floats, Strings and raw histograms. ● Saves storage space but requires UID conversion. 8

9. OpenTSDB Schema Row Key Columns (qualifier/value) m t1 tagk1 tagv1 o1/v1 o2/v2 o3/v3 m t1 tagk1 tagv2 o1/v1 o2/v2 m t1 tagk1 tagv1 tagk2 tagv3 o1/v1 o2/v2 o3/v3 m t1 tagk1 tagv2 tagk2 tagv4 o1/v1 o3/v3 m t1 tagk3 tagv5 o1/v1 o2/v2 o3/v3 m t1 tagk3 tagv6 o2/v2 m t2 tagk1 tagv1 o1/v1 o3/v3 m t2 tagk1 tagv2 o1/v1 o2/v2 9

10. OpenTSDB Use Cases ● Backing store for Argus: Open source monitoring and alerting system. ● 50M writes per minute. ● ~4M writes per TSD per minute. ● 23k queries per minute. ● https://github.com/salesforce/Argus 10

11. OpenTSDB Use Cases ● Monitoring system, network and application performance and statistics. ● Single cluster: 10M to 18M writes/s ~ 3PB. ● Multi-tenant and Kerberos secure HBase. ● ~200k writes per second per TSD. ● Central monitoring for all Yahoo properties. ● Over 1 billion active time series served. ● Leading committer to OpenTSDB. 11

12. Other Users 12

13. New for OpenTSDB 2.4 ● Rollup / Pre-Aggregated storage and querying ○ Improves query speed ○ Allows for high-resolution data to be TTL’d out ● Histogram/Digests/Sketches ○ Accurate percentile calculations on distributed measurements such as latencies. ● Date Tiered Compaction support ● Authentication/Authorization plugin 13

14. The Problem of Percentiles ● Aggregating percentiles == latency.p99.9 42.50 host=web01 latency.p99.9 58.98 host=web02 latency.p99.9 41.28 host=web03 latency.p99.9 41.94 host=web04 ● Averaging percentiles is in accurate. E.g. 46.175 hides the bad host, web02 ● Max is more useful for finding bad hosts ● But there are better ways... 14

15. Histograms ● Distribution of frequency of measurements over a time period ● Simplest form: latency measurement buckets storing counts falling within those buckets. E.g. latency.histogram 0,15.0=0:15.0,30.0=1:30.0,45.0=4:45.0,60.0=0 host=web01 latency.histogram 0,15.0=1:15.0,30.0=0:30.0,45.0=2:45.0,60.0=4 host=web02 latency.histogram 0,15.0=2:15.0,30.0=0:30.0,45.0=4:45.4,60.0=0 host=web03 latency.histogram 0,15.0=0:15.0,30.0=1:30.0,45.0=4:45.0,60.0=0 host=web04 15

16. Histograms Histogram p99 p85 p50 latency.histogram 0,15.0=0:15.0,30.0=1:30.0,45.0=4:45.0,60.0=0 host=web01 37.5 37.5 37.5 latency.histogram 0,15.0=1:15.0,30.0=0:30.0,45.0=2:45.0,60.0=4 host=web02 52.5 52.5 52.5 latency.histogram 0,15.0=2:15.0,30.0=0:30.0,45.0=4:45.4,60.0=0 host=web03 37.5 37.5 37.5 latency.histogram 0,15.0=0:15.0,30.0=1:30.0,45.0=4:45.0,60.0=0 host=web04 37.5 37.5 37.5 Averaged Percentiles: 41.25 41.25 41.25 Summed Histograms: latency.histogram 0,15.0=3:15.0,30.0=2:30.0,45.0=14:45.0,60.0=4 52.5 52.5 37.5 16

17. Histograms ● Pros: ○ Fixed size (877 bytes for 97 buckets per data point) ○ Richer analysis (probability distribution, etc) ○ Mergable via group by and downsampling ○ Fixed rank error, variable value error ● Cons: ○ Much more network/storage space required ○ Loss of accuracy (somewhere within the bucket) but precise ○ Common metrics libraries lack support 17

18. Pluggable Implementations Yahoo’s Data Sketches ● Collection of approximation algorithms with mergability and configurable accuracy v. size (~26k for 2M measurements) ● Deterministic rank error ● Tapering log size with N measurements per sketch ● Good for median percentiles ● https://datasketches.github.io/ 18

19. Pluggable Implementations T-Digest ● Offshoot of Q-Digest K-means clustering quantile approximations ● Small error at top and bottom of the quantile range ● Mergable ● Able to store floating point as well as integers ● https://github.com/tdunning/t-digest 19

20. The Problem of Appends ● 2.2 Introduced appends to move away from TSD compactions. ● 1 second resolution = 3600 columns per row => compact into 1. ● But with appends, HBase: ○ Reads the column (from memstore or disk) ○ Appends the data and writes back to memstore (and possibly block cache) ○ Send full data back to the client 20

21. The Problem of Appends ● Negatives: ○ Possible disk thrashing if columns have been compacted out of the memstore ○ Higher CPU utilization on the region servers ○ Longer wait time on the client side ● Future Solution: ○ Yahoo’s HBase developers (Francis, Thiruvel) working on an optimization using coprocessors. ○ Trials underway, details in August 21

22. The Problem of Compactions ● HBase compaction merges multiple store files into one, saving space. ● But if we assume the data is time series, with older data immutable and updates only to new data… ● ...we can avoid re-compacting old files that won’t change and skip them at scan time. ● HBASE-15181 from Yahoo and Flurry supports organizing store files by date and time. ● PR #990 from Karan at SalesForce allows TSDB to write HBase timestamps 22

23. AsyncHBase 1.8 ● AsyncHBase is a fully asynchronous, multi-threaded HBase client ● Supports HBase 0.90 to 1.x ● Faster and less resource intensive than the native HBase client ● Support for scanner filters, META prefetch, “fail-fast” RPCs 23

24. AsyncHBase 1.8 ● Batched GetRequests thanks to Tian-Ying at Pinterest and Bizu at Yahoo ● Reverse scanning support thanks to Jiayun at Harvard ● HBase 1.3.x+ support thanks to Karan at SalesForce ● MultipleColumnPrefixFilter ● Skip WAL with increments ● AtomicIncrements with multiple columns per request 24

25. OpenTSDB on Bigtable ● Bigtable ○ Hosted Google Service ○ Client uses HTTP2 and GRPC for communication ● OpenTSDB heads home ○ Based on a time series store on Bigtable at Google ○ Identical schema as HBase ○ Same filter support (fuzzy filters are coming) 25

26. OpenTSDB 3.0 ● Problem: Queries are slow and the order of operations is immutable ● Solutions: (This part is ready for testing!) ○ New composable query layer allowing operations in any order ○ Support for querying multiple sources and merging the results (e.g. use Facebook’s Berengi as a write-cache and Redis as a query cache) ○ Support for multi-cluster queries for active-active, high-availability setups 26

27. OpenTSDB 3.0 ● Problem: Storing other types of data or using other backends is a pain. ● Solutions: (In progress) ○ Pluggable storage interface allowing for various schemas and implementations (e.g. native HTable client, AsyncHBase, native Bigtable client, etc) ○ Abstracted data types for pluggable implementations of time series (e.g. raw binary, histograms, SCADA data) 27

28. OpenTSDB 3.0 ● Problem: What about anomaly detection, forecasting, etc? ● Solutions: (In progress) ○ Integration with Yahoo’s EGADS time series functions library ○ Period-over-period analysis with model caching ○ Clustering algorithms for detecting outliers ○ https://github.com/yahoo/egads 28

29. OpenTSDB 3.0 ● New Java APIs ● Servlet for standard deployment using your favorite server ● Tracing with Zipkin and OpenTracing ● New debugging UI ● Improved Docker support 29

为了让众多HBase相关从业人员及爱好者有一个自由交流HBase相关技术的社区,阿里巴巴、小米、华为、网易、京东、滴滴、知乎等公司的HBase技术研究人员共同发起了组建中国HBase技术社区。