本章节主要介绍了经典的操作系统,首先是UNXI分时系统,今天的Linux系统更加全面,但是Unix API的核心简单性仍然是一股非常强大的力量,使事情简单化的努力帮助O/S开发人员避免使系统以各种方式专门化,难以理解;另外一个就是多程序系统。

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1.Classic Systems: Unix and THE Hakim Weatherspoon CS6410 1

2.The UNIX Time-Sharing System Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson Background of authors at Bell Labs Both won Turing Awards in 1983 Dennis Ritchie Key developer of The C Programming Lanuage, Unix, and Multics Ken Thompson Key developer of the B programming lanuage, Unix, Multics, and Plan 9 Also QED, ed, UTF-8 2

3.The UNIX Time-Sharing System Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson 3

4.The UNIX Time-Sharing System Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson

5.The UNIX Time-Sharing System Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson Classic system and paper described almost entirely in 10 pages Key idea elegant combination: a few concepts that fit together well Instead of a perfect specialized API for each kind of device or abstraction, the API is deliberately small 5

6.System features Time-sharing system Hierarchical file system Device-independent I/O Shell-based, tty user interface Filter-based, record-less processing paradigm Major early innovations: “fork” system call for process creation, file I/O via a single subsystem, pipes, I/O redirection to support chains 6

7.Version 3 Unix 1969: Version 1 ran PDP-7 1971: Version 3 Ran on PDP-11’s Costing as little as $40k! < 50 KB 2 man-years to write Written in C PDP-7 PDP-11 7

8.File System Ordinary files ( uninterpreted ) Directories (protected ordinary files) Special files (I/O) 8

9.Uniform I/O Model open, close, read, write, seek Uniform calls eliminates differences between devices Two categories of files: character (or byte) stream and block I/O, typically 512 bytes per block other system calls close, status, chmod , mkdir , ln One way to “talk to the device” more directly ioctl , a grab-bag of special functionality lowest level data type is raw bytes, not “records” 9

10.Directories root directory path names rooted tree current working directory back link to parent multiple links to ordinary files 10

11.Special Files Uniform I/O model Each device associated with at least one file But read or write of file results in activation of device Advantage: Uniform naming and protection model File and device I/O are as similar as possible File and device names have the same syntax and meaning, can pass as arguments to programs Same protection mechanism as regular files 11

12.Removable File System Tree-structured Mount ’ed on an ordinary file Mount replaces a leaf of the hierarchy tree (the ordinary file) by a whole new subtree (the hierarchy stored on the removable volume) After mount, virtually no distinction between files on permanent media or removable media 12

13.Protection User-world, RWX bits set-user-id bit super user is just special user id 13

14.File System Implementation System table of i -numbers ( i -list) i -nodes path names (directory is just a special file!) mount table buffered data write-behind 14

15.I-node Table short, unique name that points at file info. allows simple & efficient fsck cannot handle accounting issues File name Inode# Inode 15

16.Many devices fit the block model Disks Drums Tape drives USB storage Early version of the ethernet interface was presented as a kind of block device (seek disabled) But many devices used IOCTL operations heavily 16

17.Processes and images text, data & stack segments process swapping pid = fork() pipes exec(file , arg1, ..., argn ) pid = wait() exit(status ) 17

18.Easy to create pipelines A “pipe” is a process-to-process data stream, could be implemented via bounded buffers, TCP, etc One process can write on a connection that another reads, allowing chains of commands % cat *.txt | grep foo | wc In combination with an easily programmable shell scripting model, very powerful! 18

19.The Shell cmd arg1 ... argn stdio & I/O redirection filters & pipes multi-tasking from a single shell shell is just a program Trivial to implement in shell Redirection, background processes, cmd files, etc 19

20.Traps Hardware interrupts Software signals Trap to system routine 20

21.Perspective Not designed to meet predefined objective Goal: create a comfortable environment to explore machine and operating system Other goals Programmer convenience Elegance of design Self-maintaining 21

22.Perspective But had many problems too. Here are a few: Weak, rather permissive security model File names too short and file system damaged on crash Didn’t plan for threads and never supported them well “Select” system call and handling of “signals” was ugly and out of character w.r.t. other features Hard to add dynamic libraries (poor handling of processes with lots of “segments”) Shared memory and mapped files fit model poorly ...in effect, the initial simplicity was at least partly because of some serious limitations! 22

23.Even so, Unix has staying power! Today’s Linux systems are far more comprehensive yet the core simplicity of Unix API remains a very powerful force Struggle to keep things simple has helped keep O/S developers from making the system specialized in every way, hard to understand Even with modern extensions, Unix has a simplicity that contrasts with Windows .NET API... Win32 is really designed as an internal layer that libraries invoke, but that normal users never encounter. 23

24.“THE”-Multiprogramming System Edsger W. Dijkstra Received Turing Award in 1972 Contributions Shortest Path Algorithm, Reverse Polish Notation, Bankers algorithm, semaphore’s, self-stabilization Known for disliking ‘ goto ’ statements and using computers!

25.“THE”-Multiprogramming System Edsger W. Dijkstra Never named “THE” system; instead, abbreviation for " Technische Hogeschool Eindhoven” Batch system (no human intervention) that supported multitasking (processes share CPU) THE was not multiuser Introduced software-based memory segmentation Cooperating sequential processes semaphores

26.Design Layered structure Later Multics has layered structure, ring segmentation Layer 0 – the scheduler Allocated CPU to processes, accounted for blocked proc’s Layer 1 – the pager Layer 2 – communication between OS and console Layer 3 – managed I/O Layer 4 – user programs Layer 5 – the user “Not implemented by us”!

27.Perspective Layered approach Design small, well defined layers Higher layers dependent on lower ones Helps prove correctness Helps with debugging Sequential process and Semaphores

28.Next Time Read and write review for Tuesday, September 4: Required Bitcoin : A peer-to-peer electronic cash system . Nakamoto , Satoshi. Consulted 1.2012 (2008 ): 28 http ://nakamotoinstitute.org/bitcoin / Optional Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies: A Comprehensive Introduction . A. Narayanan, J. Bonneau , E. Felten , A. Miller, S. Goldfeder . Princeton University Press; 2016. Read Preamble, and Chapters 1 and 2. https :// d28rh4a8wq0iu5.cloudfront.net/bitcointech/readings/princeton_bitcoin_book.pdf Optional Majority is not enough: Bitcoin mining is vulnerable . Eyal, Ittay , and Emin Gun Sirer. arXiv preprint arXiv:1311.0243 (2013 ). http ://www.cs.cornell.edu/~ie53/publications/btcProcArXiv.pdf

29.Next Time Read and write review for Thursday, September 6: Required The Design and Implementation of a Log-Structured File System, Mendel Rosenblum and Ousterhout . Proceedings of the thirteenth ACM symposium on Operating systems principles , October 1991, pages 1--15.On the duality of operating system structures, H. C. Lauer and R. M. Needham. ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review Volume 12, Issue 2 (April 1979), pages 3--19. Optional : A Fast File System for UNIX. Marshall K. McKusick , William N. Joy, Samuel J. Leffler , Robert S. Fabry . ACM TOCS 2(3), Aug 1984, pages 181--197.