The course mainly adout History of Personal Computers and Their Interaction Techniques.Generally covered Hardware,Ivan Sutherland’s Sketchpad,Origins of the Mouse,Xerox PARC,Macintosh,Windows.

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1.1 Lecture 2: History of Personal Computers and Their Interaction Techniques Brad Myers 05-440/05-640: Interaction Techniques Spring, 2016 © 2016 - Brad Myers

2.Quiz 1 © 2016 - Brad Myers 2

3.Outline Hardware Ivan Sutherland’s Sketchpad Origins of the Mouse Xerox PARC Smalltalk Bravo Drawing editors Macintosh Windows Taskbar (Handheld devices covered in lecture 5) (Desktops and Window Managers covered in Lecture 6) © 2016 - Brad Myers 3

4.“Character Terminals” Still around as “DOS cmd prompts” and console windows But we are more interested in graphics…. © 2016 - Brad Myers 4

5.Who knows what this is? Dates back before the 1930s © 2016 - Brad Myers 5

6.Cathode ray tube (CRT) http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cathode_ray_tube © 2016 - Brad Myers 6

7.Ivan Sutherland’s Sketchpad, 1963 © 2016 - Brad Myers 7

8.SketchPad , 1963 Lincoln Labs TX-2 computer “Light pen” pointing device Invented many important interaction techniques Direct manipulation Uses a “light pen” “Rubber Band Lines” Constraint-based drawing Maintains connectivity of lines Vertical, horizontal lines Prototype-instance drawing Master with multiple copies, Can edit the master to affect all copies Almost arbitrary scaling of the whole drawing Lots of individual switches and knobs to control the drawings 3D drawings added by others to Sutherland’s original SketchPad program Including hidden line elimination First flow chart – graphical programming Ivan’s brother: William “Bert” Sutherland! © 2016 - Brad Myers 8

9.Output © 2016 - Brad Myers 9 Then Raster Scan Bitmapped displays Bit in memory for each pixel on the screen Memory was very expensive! First: monochrome Color Multiple bits per pixel LCDs, … But output hardware isn’t particularly relevant to this course!

10.SRI and the Mouse Stanford Research Institute (SRI) Bill English and Doug Engelbart credited with the invention of the mouse W.K. English, D.C. Engelbart and M.L. Berman. “Display Selection Techniques for Text Manipulation,” IEEE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics. Mar, 1967 . HFE-8(1).] NLS, or the “ oN -Line System” "The Mother of All Demos” on December 9, 1968 at the Fall Joint Computer Conference in San Francisco Never really had a decent user interface © 2016 - Brad Myers 10

11.Xerox PARC Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) Founded by Xerox in 1970 Still exists today, as a semi-autonomous research lab Incredible collection of talent Hired many people from SRI, and many researchers and engineers Incredible collection of inventions, 1970-1982 Hardware Invented workstations, laser printing, the Ethernet Only part that Xerox made money on Bitmapped displays Software Invented many of the standard OS and systems principles Object oriented programming (Smalltalk) Model-View-Controller architecture Interpress , a resolution-independent graphical page-description language and the precursor to PostScript User Interfaces (Also invented lots about Ubiquitous Computing in the 1990s – see lecture 5) © 2016 - Brad Myers 11

12.Xerox Alto Machine Everyone else at the time was using mainframes or “mini computers” that were shared “Time Sharing” Alto was one of the first “personal workstations” Starting about 1973 No operating system – each program had its own libraries and low-level access mechanisms Three button mouse with two opposing roller wheels Red, Yellow, Green vertically Later replaced with left, middle, right, with single metal roller Was secret for a long time but later distributed to many universities © 2016 - Brad Myers 12

13.Brad Myers with an Alto, 1979 From my Dad’s scrapbook for that year, with my annotations! © 2016 - Brad Myers 13

14.“Bravo” Butler Lampson, Charles Simonyi and colleagues in 1974 Simonyi went to Microsoft and created Microsoft Word First WYSIWYG text editing Multiple fonts, bold, italics, etc. Justification Interaction techniques are quite different Left mouse button – select character, middle – select word, right – extend selection Left – scroll up, right – scroll down, middle - thumb Highly moded commands: “r” for replace, “d” delete, “I” insert, “ESC” for stop inserting, … “EDIT” © 2016 - Brad Myers 14

15.Smalltalk Started about 1972 as the first purely object-oriented language by Alan Kay Alan Kay proposed the idea of overlapping windows in his 1969 doctoral thesis Overlapping windows first appeared in 1974 in the Smalltalk’74 system Also used popup windows, scroll bars, etc. Larry Tesler invented the “browser” for code for Smalltalk Smalltalk’80 is best known – Byte article, generally released and described I worked with Smalltalk in 1977 All the interaction techniques will be covered in the various topics © 2016 - Brad Myers 15

16.Various Drawing Programs Draw – cubic splines for curves Markup – in-place pop-up context menus © 2016 - Brad Myers 16 Source: http://toastytech.com/guis/saltodraw.png

17.Larry Tesler Xerox PARC 1973 Rejected highly moded interactions of Bravo With Tim Mott, et. al, invented non- moded interactions for Gypsy editor including Copy and Paste about 1974 Added to Smalltalk editing Apple in 1980 In charge of the Lisa design team Video of his lecture last time: http :// scs.hosted.panopto.com/Panopto/Pages/Viewer/Default.aspx?id=e6adfb43-be90-46b3-9009-23cd98b7a898 © 2016 - Brad Myers 17

18.18 © 2016 - Brad Myers “Workstations” Alto Lisp Machines (LMI & Symbolics ) About 1979-1995 Sun, Apollo, PERQ, Silicon Graphics About 1982 - 2000 About $10,000 each For scientists, engineers, programmers Had mouse, window managers

19.Xerox Star Released 1982 Designed for executives Too expensive for secretaries Large team of designers who were not from PARC Their building was next door to PARC Extensive user interface studies guided designs Key innovations to be covered later Desktop metaphor Many modern widgets WYSIWYG editing and drawing No PowerPoint or Spreadsheet programs Mostly closed – only Xerox made applications Too expensive and seemed slow © 2016 - Brad Myers 19 Images: http://toastytech.com/guis/star2.html

20.Xerox Star Released 1982 Designed for executives Too expensive for secretaries Large team of designers who were not from PARC Their building was next door to PARC Extensive user interface studies guided designs Key innovations to be covered later Desktop metaphor Many modern widgets WYSIWYG editing and drawing No PowerPoint or Spreadsheet programs Mostly closed – only Xerox made applications Too expensive and seemed slow © 2016 - Brad Myers 19 Images: http://toastytech.com/guis/star2.html

21.Apple Xerox wanted to invest in Apple In exchange, Steve Jobs got the right to use all of Xerox’s ideas Steve & his team (Bill Atkinson) were given a demo of various Alto programs in 1979 Mouse Smalltalk – overlapping windows – thought they updated Bravo WYSIWYG editing Apple hired Larry Tesler & others, 1980 © 2016 - Brad Myers 21

22.Apple “Lisa” 1983 Original design for desktop Bill Atkinson & others Novel pull-down menus (at top of screen) Dialog boxes Many other UI innovations Doesn’t look or work like the Star One button mouse Amazing programming expertise to get it to work on a tiny, inexpensive machine © 2016 - Brad Myers 22 Image: http://toastytech.com/guis/lisa.html

23.Original Macintosh 1984 Much cheaper than Lisa No harddisk – just one floppy 128 k-bytes of memory Much of code re-implemented in assembly Famous 1984 Super Bowl ad by Ridley Scott © 2016 - Brad Myers 23

24.HyperCard © 2016 - Brad Myers 24 Bill Atkinson, 1987 Intention – “programming for the rest of us” One of the first “prototyping” systems But not used for many “real” applications Many UI innovations Tear off menus Pages that overlay each other Animated transitions “Tabbed notebook” look&feel Programmed in “ HyperTalk ” English-like language

25.PCs & Windows IBM PC – 1981 (IBM had missed the “minicomputer” phase dominated by DEC) Used Microsoft’s DOS 1.0 and shipped with VisiCalc Windows 1.0 released in Nov, 1985 as DOS extension Tiled window manager Windows 2.0 was overlapping 1987 Windows 3.0 in 1990, 3.1 in 1992 Was a real operating system Added virtual memory, protected multiple processing, etc. © 2016 - Brad Myers 25 Windows 1 from Wikipedia